samedi 1 décembre 2018

France/Zaïre/RDC: Mobutu's farewell letter to his ultimate friend Jacques Chirac and to power!


To His Excellency Jacques Chirac,

President of the French Republic,

                                                   Kinshasa, May 11, 1997.

Mister President,

         First of all, I would like to extend my sincere greetings. To you, as well as to your wife. In the name of the very long friendship that binds us for more than a decade.
         Today, the situation is painful for me. Given the gravity of the moment. First, at the level of my power where I lost the efficiency on the population. Then, at the military level, it is impossible for me to stop the rebels' advance towards Kinshasa, which they can reach at any moment.
         As for Kinshasa, I can not promote a useless bloodbath. Because, in any case the rebels will reach it well. Everything is a matter of time.
         Should I remind you that I am facing an unjust war? Today, the United States and Great Britain through South Africa, Uganda, Rwanda and Angola use the band leader Laurent Désiré Kabila to stab me in the back enjoying of my illness.
         Formerly, the United States were my allies, remember the Angolan episode. I reserve the right to publish my memoirs in the coming days. Then the whole world will finally know unsuspected truths so far.
         My friend, you know as well as I that the band leader Laurent Désiré Kabila is a dubious, genocidal and inappropriate personality to lead Zaire as head of state. I tried everything to prevent that. But its Western masters, the United States in this case support it and encourage it in this way.
         Faced with the American obstinacy and the continuous deterioration of my state of health, I am obliged to announce to you my intention to transfer the power to Kabila during our next meeting on Utenika on May 14th.
May God help Zaire!

Mobutu Sese Seko Kuku Ngbendu Waza Banga
President of the Republic

         The Marshal of Zaire was expelled from power on May 17, 1997. Before this fateful date, many initiatives were attempted with the obvious aim of sparing the dictator a humiliating fall, evoking the pretext of avoiding bathing. of blood in Kinshasa and that of safeguarding national unity. In the letter dated May 11, 1997 to Chirac, Mobutu knows he can not do anything and does not even dare to call the French president for help. All he does is complain in particular accusing Great Britain, the United States and some African countries of stabbing him in the back.

mercredi 21 novembre 2018

Algeria: The mysteries around the death of Houari Boumediene

"Health and Power, memories of a Kremlin doctor! "

      The revelations of Yevgeny Tchazov, the chief medical officer who headed the "Department 4" in charge of the health of communist leaders in the Kremlin, put back to date the still unresolved conditions of the death of President Houari Boumediène. He pleaded the thesis of poisoning. What justifies the reopening of an investigation ...
      Professor Tchazov's interview with the Arabic-language replica of the Russian international channel focused on his testimony about the care provided by the Soviet doctors to the Egyptian and Algerian Presidents, Nasser and Boumediene. A testimony recorded in his book recently published "Health and Power, memories of a doctor of the Kremlin", where he concluded, in essence, that "there is someone who would have helped President Boumediène to join the beyond.".

Why was the Algerian leader poisoned and by whom?

      Recall the context. It was just after the signing of Middle East Peace Agreements negotiated between Egypt and Israel at Camp David in the United States. President Boumediene had gone to U.S.S.S. for care on his return from a tour that had taken him to ten capitals in the Middle East and ended with a summit of the "Firm Front" (Syria, Libya, Democratic Yemen, PLO and Algeria), held in Damascus in September 1978.
      President Boumediène then undertook to rally the "wait-and-see". Advocating principled intransigence in order to keep the Palestinians desperate after Egypt's defection, the Algerian president relied heavily on a reconciliation between Syria and Iraq, which is critical to the credibility of a northern front against Israel.

The first suspect was unsuspected: Sddam Hussein!

      However, the Iraq of Saddam Hussein who fought against the Maghreb claim of leadership in the Front of Firmness, had flip-flopped and boycotted the summit at the last minute, putting Boumediene, who had invested some of his authority, in embarrassment .
      The Damascus summit had, in any case, ended in the reconciliation of Palestinians and Jordanians. And while the United States waved the threat of military intervention to ensure peace, the participants had decided to resort to the US. The geopolitical tension that followed had nearly caused another war in the region.

Secret and fear of lynching Russian doctors

      In short, Prof. Evgueni Tchazov remembered, at the height of his 84 years, the conditions under which he had received President Houari Boumediene (1932-1978), the secrecy to which the doctors entrusted to the U.S.S.R. had been subjected, and also the anguish took because of a rumor kept in the hospital where he was in Algiers. "We were afraid to be lynched if he died. The cream of the Soviet doctors was there to take the President Boumediène in charge. I had to call President Iouri Andropov (1914-1984) to tell him of my concerns if something happened to him. At the death of President Boumediène, a manager had brought us through the basement to get us out through a back door, " he said.

And the flight of French doctors

      Regarding the diagnosis and even though he maintained, without asserting, that the symptoms presented by the late Houari Boumediène resembled "poisoning", Pr Tchazov confessed, 35 years later, that the medical team is at his bedside. was revealed, at the time, "unable to diagnose his state of health." According to him, the late president told him that "he started to feel bad after eating on the plane". If he did not specify where the plane was when these signs of fatigue appeared on him, Pr. Tchazov did not fail to draw a parallel with the death of the Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat  (1929-2004) as to the inadequacy of the diagnostic. "We had noticed the dysfunction of many of his vital organs and also a change in the chemical equation of his blood. We were in a critical state that was getting worse. We had accompanied him to Algiers. Other doctors had been brought from France but, "we could not understand his case," he said.
      Boumediene died a little over a month after his tour in the East. Will one day know the bottom of his death? Will his body be exhumed for reconsideration? It is the only solution, to tell the truth, to be able to specify the diagnosis and to elucidate the conditions of his death.
*Lyas Hallas - Alger (Le Soir)

vendredi 4 mai 2018

Ethiopia/ Ancient Greece: Aesop, the Father of the Fables was an African.

But who was Aesop?

Born in Nubia between VII and VI century B.C., he is taken to Phrygia where he is sold as a slave. In other words, Aesop was an African. According to Plutarch, Aesop is a former stave slave with a particularly ungrateful physical. After having dreamed that Fortune loosened his tongue, he awakened one day, cured of his stuttering. Purchased by a slave trader, he arrived in the home of a philosopher of the island of Samos named Xanthius, with whom his vivacity of mind and his ability to solve the enigmas would have allowed him to regain his freedom. He would have taken advantage of his new freedom by traveling, from Egypt to Babylon (present-day Iraq), before returning to Asia Minor at the court of Croesus, Sardis, then capital of Lydia, also frequented by the man of Athenian state Solon, one of the Seven Sages of Greece, with whom he would have spoken. He puts his talent at the service of the king of Babylon who rejoices in his enigmas. Charged by Croesus, to bring offerings to the temple of Delphi, he reveals the frauds committed by the priests of Apollo. They avenge themselves by accusing him of stealing a gold cup dedicated to God. He is judged and condemned to be precipitated from the Hyampean rock, the year 564 BC. J.-C .. After his death, the misfortune, it is said, falls on Delphi and its inhabitants. This is what the Chevalier Lestrange tells us about him: “We must believe Planude, Camerarius, and a few others, Aesop was born at Ammorius, a town in Great Phrygia. There are some who do Thracin, others Samian. He was a slave and the most deformed of all men. He had a pointed head, a flat nose, and fat lips; he was hunchbacked in front and behind”. He had a prodigious belly, turtled legs, and the tanned complexion that gave rise to his name, because Aesop and Ethiopian are the same thing. The term Ethiopian means in Greek "face burned by the sun", it is thus that the Greeks named in antiquity all the people having the skin "black". The collection, which today is called Aesop, is a compilation, consisting of prose paraphrases of the fables of Babrius, which was established in the eleventh century. His writings were to strongly influence the literature of the West; they inspired Jean de la Fontaine, Phaedrus, Avianus, and many others. The 358 fables of Aesop, collected by Demetrius of Phaleron, are part of the culture of the Indo-European peoples and undoubtedly represent the collection of fables most read literature. Jean De La Fontaine acknowledges it: "I sing the heroes of which Aesop is the father, Troupe of whom the story, although false, Contains truths which serve as lessons". Yet from the African origin of Aesop, it does not speak much: it is an information that is not mentioned in the courses of French and Literature; information that even teachers do not know ... In his book Austere's Country, Condition, Figure, and Spirits, Maxime Planude, grammarian and philologist of the 13th century, wrote about Aesop: "Many great men have endeavored to examine the nature of human things, and the causes of revolutions, to instruct posterity. It seems, when one considers the wisdom and good sense that shines in the works of Aesop, that he was divinely inspired, to give to men so many precepts of morality, so beautiful and so useful, and which surpass infinitely all those whom the greatest philosophers had hitherto given”.
-Weiss Charles, Biographie universelle
(Universal Biography), 1841.
-Litchfild West Martin, La Fable : huit exposés suivis de
discussions (The Fable: eight presentations followed by discussions), Hardt Foundation, Geneva, 1984.
-Carl Karl and Vandendorpe, La fable : Vade-mecum du professeur de français
  (The Fable: Vademecum of the French teacher), Didier Hatier, Brussels-Paris, 1993.
-Jouano Corinne, Vie d’Ésope : livre du philosophe Xanthos et de son esclave Ésope : du mode de vie d'Ésope
(Life of Aesop: book of the philosopher Xanthos and his slave Aesop: of the way of life of Aesop, Les Belles Lettres, Paris, 2006.
-Chambery Emile, Esope : Fables  (Aesop: Fables),
Les Belles lettres, Paris, 2006.
-Thuram Lilian, Mes étoiles noires : de Lucy à Barack Obama
  (My black stars: from Lucy to Barack Obama, Philippe Rey, Paris, 2010.
-Esope, Fables,
Flammarion, Paris, 2014.
-Lacarrière Jacques, Les fables d’Esope : Suivies d’un essai sur le symbolisme des fables
  (Aesop's Fables: Followed by an essay on the symbolism of fables), Albin Michel, Paris, 2016.
-The Tortoise and the hare
, Animated Short, by Harryhausen, U.K., 2002.

lundi 29 janvier 2018

Cameroon / France: When the late Johnny Halliday strikes an African Minister!

"There is no room for Yéyé behavior! "

In 1969, reacting to the brutal behavior of Johnny Halliday vis-à-vis the Central African Minister of Public Service on May 10, 1968 at the Independence Hotel in Yaoundé.
         President Ahmadou Ahidjo advised by the French professor Jean-Français Bayart, reacted vigorously to the single party activists: It is "the sign of an unsuitable youth, embittered by the feeling of its uselessness, of its non-participation in the building its own future, " he continues in front of single party activists.
         The Cameroonian administration reacted immediately by expelling the same manu militari, the French rocker who soaked alcohol had provoked a brawl and administered a beating to the Central African Minister on official mission. Despite this incident, the French singer had given his version of the incident to AFP: "A guy that I obviously could not know said unpleasant things about us, especially because we have long hair. He jostled me. I protested. Then he grabbed me by tearing my polo shirt. "
The rocker canceled his concert but assured: "I will not want the Cameroonian people. "
         The idol of the young French had just made a strong enemy: the father of the independence of Cameroon Ahmadou Ahidjo!
         He even has the honors of a diplomatic telegram from the French Embassy in Yaoundé, found by the authors of the book "Kamerun!” In the archives of Jacques Foccart, head of the Africa cell of the Elysee, where still sits for a few months Charles de Gaulle. Mr. Smet, says fanciful singer Johnny Hallyday, caused a scandal.

Hallyday will never die. 

         He can not do it. He has been part of the landscape of French popular culture for so long - his multiple marriages, his political anger and worries about his state of health constitute a national saga not far removed from the hottest Latin American telenovelas - that its death would be a disaster and mark the end of an era. 

What would we do without Johnny?

         If Johnny were to hang up his guitar for good, he would leave a gaping void and no American legend could replace him. Because nobody can do as kitsch as Johnny, absolute king of the ¬ringardise. If there is one area in which the French are really good, this is it.
         In 1994, during the genocide of the Tutsi in Rwanda, the radio Milles collines broadcast continuously his song "The doors of the penitentiary"! Johnny Halliday had "lit the fire" of hell without ever setting fire to Rwanda! The main Rwandan Hutu genocidants fled to Cameroon with the complicity of France !!

The former idol of young people has just released his audience.

A first in a career almost sixty years old!

mercredi 22 novembre 2017

CHAD: The Infernal Circle of Bad Governance.

Recently, Chad managed to raise over $ 20 billion for a National Development Plan, while it was expecting $ 7 billion only
The goal of this plan is to reduce poverty and drive development. However, will these funds that will be collected contribute to the development of the country or is it a counterpart of geopolitical services that Idriss Deby will give to Westerners?

"Vision 2030, the Chad we want"

         Since 2003, Chad has initiated two National Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (N.P.R.S. 1 and 2), four National Development Plans (P.N.D. 2003-2006, P.N.D. 2008-2011, P.N.D. 2013-2015 and P.N.D. 20017-2021). To this must be added the P.N.Ds 2022-2026 and 2027-2030 contained in the document "Vision 2030, the Chad we want", for which, it will still be necessary to raise funds. These documents, which were supposed to pave the way for harmonious development, proved to be fiascos. Worse, they were opportunities for enrichment for the rulers, without any real impact on the lives of the Chadian people.

According to the I.D.H. the country ranks 186th out of 188 in 2016.

         In fact, the country ranks 186th out of 188 countries according to the 2016 Human Development Index. In addition, only 52% of the population has access to drinking water compared to 3% of the population to electricity according to the Bank. African Development. More than 3.7 million people are food insecure in 2016 according to the Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. Certainly, progress is being made in the field of infrastructures. But, they do not obey the standards of achievement because the owner is required to wet the beard of a whole chain of command.

Fiasco of the elitist approach to development!

         The failure of Development Strategies and Plans is linked to the adoption of a "top-down" approach to development. Elitist approaches therefore, disconnected from the real needs of the people "from below"; irresponsible because of lack of transparency and accountability, favoring the bureaucrat over the entrepreneur. But only the latter can create wealth and jobs. Also, with such a dirigiste approach of the economy, one could only create corruption, mismanagement, rent instead of creating businesses, wealth and jobs. In other words, the donors, in addition to the dictatorship bonus, give a premium to bad governance and bad economic policies.

Nepotism, corruption and tribalisation of the administration.

         Nepotism, corruption, mismanagement, the "tribalisation" of the administration, ..., are the evils that undermine the Chadian state. The country ranks 40th out of 59 African countries and 159th out of 176 countries according to the Transparency International 2O16 ranking. In addition, the 2016 Mo Ibrahim index, which assesses governance, ranks the country 51st out of 54 countries. In his report, "Chad S.A", the NGO SWISSAID, clearly castigates the patrimonial management of oil revenues. The country has garnered more than $ 13 billion in oil revenues since 2003. Yet, 50% of the population still lives below the poverty line. The reason is that "Deby would have made Chad a true family S.A."

Chad became the "Déby S.A."

         Finally, Chad is one of the countries where the business climate remains the most hostile in Africa, thus discouraging entrepreneurship. The Doing Business 2017 Index credits the country 48th out of 53 African countries, while according to the Fraser Institute's Economic Freedom Index, Chad is ranked among the 11 countries on the continent that repress economic freedom. If Chad is a failing state, how then explain the enthusiasm of the Western partners who continue to bet on the soldier-Deby?

The West needs the soldier  Idriss Déby!

         The strong infatuation of donors is explained by the importance that Chad represents in their security and power projection device. Thus, as part of the fight against terrorism, Chad is at the forefront with its contingents in Mali, Nigeria and Cameroon. In addition, about 3,000 Chadian soldiers are expected to participate in the G5 Sahel force, 5,000 are engaged in the Multinational Joint Task Force (M.N.J.T.F.) in the fight against the Boko Haram sect. 1150 operate in Mali within the framework of MI.N.U.S.M.A.. The country has also intervened in the Central African Republic as part of peacekeeping operations.

Strategic ally in the fight against terrorism and immigration.

These soldiers who should be used to ensure the safety of the people have become, in a way, a means of blackmail and exchange to drain donations and funding. President Idriss Déby Itno demonstrated this during his interview with the journalists of Radio France Internationale, on the "International" show, threatening to withdraw his forces in the fight against terrorism, if his Western partners did not come to him. help. The strong mobilization for the financing of this P.N.D. therefore responds to the logic of preserving a strategic ally in the fight against terrorism.
         As regards the fight against illegal immigration, Chad is one of the transit countries of migrants. Cooperation with France in the context of securing borders to fight against migrants is under way. Migrant sorting centers (hotspots) are envisaged as part of this cooperation. The country therefore benefits from a rent linked to its geographical position. To get funding, he agrees to do the thankless work.

Strategic subcontracting against bad governance and economic malpractices.

         At the military-strategic level, many initiatives are based on the country's positioning. The operational command of the Barkhane Force, the Headquarters of the Multinational Joint Task Force of the L.C.B.C., is in Chad. The country is part of the U.S. anti-terrorism (T.S.C.T.P.), it houses a French base of projection and attack that are advanced positions for indirect control of the country. Chad therefore provides strategic outsourcing to the Powers while sacrificing the supreme interests of the Chadian people. The country will offer its services to these powers, in return, we will close our eyes to the abuses, financial and economic malpractices. The big loser in this haggling is the Chadian people.
         In short, the N.D.P. can only benefit the Chadian people if the donors make funding conditional on true democratization and good governance. Otherwise, the funding will only strengthen President Déby's hold on the country by giving him even more means to enslave his people.

Alfred Ndegoto, Chadian researcher. Article published in collaboration with Libre Afrique, published in Info-Afrique on October 2, 2017

lundi 6 novembre 2017


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         I cordially invite you to help finance the publication and promotion of the first African Biographical Dictionary. Whoever you are, wherever you are, this call concerns you!
         This "Biographical Dictionary of Africans"
is in legal deposit at the Swiss National Library, the Royal Library of Belgium and the National Library of the D. R. of Congo and will be self-published on the Amazon / Kindle digital platform. The first edition in paperback format was published in 2012 in Brussels and had a volume of 855 pages. The dictionary currently contains 3,630 updated and corrected biographies representing more or less 4,000 pages (including pictures). I intend to publish it in a downloadable paper format and in a purely digital format.
         Your financial contribution, whatever the amount, proves that you have at heart the quality of the story you want to transmit to your contemporaries and especially to your own offspring! This is the way we teach them our story, that they will pass it on as our legacy to future generations. And it is thanks to your generosity that this fair, equitable, responsible and safe transmission will be made possible. Your contribution, however modest, will have the value of an immeasurable investment. In addition, it will allow me to apply to the book an unbeatable price. Like the Talent of which Jesus Christ speaks in the New Testament, yours will be multiplied to infinity and will be returned to you a hundredfold. Whenever a user or a reader will consult the Dictionary biographical of Africans, it will be in the process of fructifying the "Talent" which you will have given to build this WEB portal. And every time the Dictionary gets bigger, you will say to yourself: "It is thanks to my voluntary contribution that this dictionary improves and serves me as well as thousands of other WEB users around the world ".

         Perhaps you will have your place one day, if you are not already there! If you have your entry, you will be even better known and recognized. So, what you have generously donated is a hundredfold every moment!

         The Biographical Dictionary of Africans responds to an essential need for thorough knowledge of the landmarks of African history. To be understood, the story uses illuminating tags throughout its course. These tags are often, without their knowledge, personalities whose biographies I have chosen to detail.
         These personalities are not only bridges between generations, but are true lighthouses for future generations. When they are not lighthouses, they shine in the sky like stars that brighten the monotony of the time they live. Sometimes they pass very quickly like comets that mark history or shooting stars that see a minority of observers.Whether they attract our sympathy or arouse the antipathy of the majority of us, they become our benchmarks or references.
Whether they deserve the pedestal, the purgatory or the gallows of history, they remain essential and mark our destiny forever.
         Paul Valery said "There is only one man left to think of his name, and the works that make this name a sign of admiration, hatred or indifference".
         Thus, the political history of the Democratic Republic of Congo can hardly be written without reference to Patrice Emery Lumumba or his anti-thesis Joseph Désiré Mobutu. How would one tell the history of South Africa by failing to talk about Nelson Mandela?
         Blaise Compaoré's longevity in power has scarcely succeeded in erasing the swift passage into power of his fiery comrade Thomas Sankara, now a hero and father of Burkina Faso. Understanding the evolution of African history is essential to understand that of the world in which it occupies a place of choice.
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samedi 4 novembre 2017

The Chimeric vaccine "curative" against V.I.H./.S.I.D.A. of Drs Lurhuma Zirimwabagabo André (R.D.C.) and Daniel Zagury Shawfik (Egypt).

Lurhuma André: Ordinary youth, classical training.

Born at Bukavu in the province of South Kivu, he attended primary and secondary school in this town. With a scholarship, he obtained a doctorate in medicine at the Catholic University of Louvain and specializes in Immunology. He becomes a professor at the University of Kinshasa. First Zairian immunologist, he became head of department of internal medicine, then director of University Clinics of Kinshasa. He conducts research on Trypanosomiasis, Tuberculosis, Malaria and especially Cancer. As soon as V.I.H./S.I.D.A appeared in Kinshasa in 1983, he developed a rapid test to detect H.I.V. in H.I.V.-positive people.

The mirage of the healing vaccine "Mubarak / Mobutu 1"

         Dr. Daniel Zagury Shawfik, Egyptian doctor, professor at the University Marie Curie of Paris was a friend of the American professor Robert Charles Gallo with whom he had written his thesis in immuno-virology between 1987 and 1990.
         A few months later the Congolese musician Luambo Makiadi "Franco" released in collaboration with Sam Mangwana, the song "Attention na S.I.D.A" which challenges the African and World Society. Alas, he was a victim of this pandemic on October 12, 1989.
         In December 1994, Dr. Zagury met in Kinshasa, Dr. André Lurhuma Zirimwabagabo, professor at University Clinics in Kinshasa and director of the Center for Medical Research. He suggests that he prepare together a preventive vaccine against V.I.H./S.I.D.A. But Zairian begins with research on a curative vaccine. They go to the hospital to take blood samples from the H.I.V. on two affected patients. The Egyptian reports them to the Parisian laboratory. He separates white blood cells that he processes with formaldehyde to inactivate the A.I.D.S. virus. The first A.I.D.S. vaccine was born according to Zagury. He returns the inactivated virus to Dr. Zirimwabagabo L. who obtains permission from the Department of Health to inject this inactivated virus into two patients.
         Dr. Z. Lurhuma reassures Dr. Zagury Shawfik, "All is well, one of the two patients even left the hospital to go to work."

"A news of a nature to overthrow Africa and the world".

         The next day, Zairian immunizes eight other patients whose results will never be known. This does not prevent Dr. Zirimwabagabo from moving to the manufacture of a vaccine candidate by inserting the gene that encodes the V.I.H. envelope protein (called GP160) plays a determining role in cell infection, because it allows the virus to bind to the target cell receptors, an essential step for the virus to enter the cells and multiply there. The genetic construction is carried out in the United States by Dr. Bernard Moos, of the National Institutes of Health (N.I.H.) and addressed to Zagury. This is a classic method that pose in scientific arguments.
         Dr. Zagury, who is H.I.V.-negative, agrees to receive this preventive vaccine. Thirty days after being injected by this vaccine candidate, he produced neutralizing antibodies. Several other public health doctors, as well as patients, had agreed to receive the vaccine candidate. Apart from this experience, he decided to continue the experiments in Zaire.

A fatal ethical omission and a "scientifically" unacceptable secret!

In 1987, the journal "Nature" presents his results, including his own immunization and data obtained in Zaire.
         In the presentation of his data, Dr. Zagury fails to mention that tests were carried out in Zaire in nine children aged two to twelve whose fathers died from S.I.D.A. and the mothers were infected by the V.I.H .. To justify himself, he claims that he got the green light from the Zairian Ethics Committee! Which committee? What scientific ethics?
         As soon as he learns, Dr Bernard Moos, of the American Health Authorities (N.I.H.) who carried out the vaccine construction and provided significant quantities to Dr. Shawfik Zagury is quick to point out that he produced them for animal experiments and not for human trials. Especially since Dr. Lurhuma had just claimed that the virus H.I.V. was mainly transmitted to contacts of foreign persons or abroad. One of his great wrongs was to absolutely keep secret the formula of his remedy at the moment when all the pharmaceutical companies are riveted on the Pandemic!
         In the United States, critics become harsh and even violent. The Mobutu regime is at the bottom of the scale and this fake vaccine affair gives the American press the opportunity to make fun of Zaire. He becomes virtually the author of a bad hoax of which he is accustomed. The "Wall Street Journal" writes, "It's like a brave B-movie, but it pays nothing."
In December 1988, the "Los Angeles Times" speaks squarely of fraud of which Dr. Lurhuma is entirely guilty. In Paris, the newspaper "Le Monde" title on "The dangers of wild trials".
         In the scientific community, opinions are divided. It is obvious that this pioneering work, carried out in a country with no expertise in the field of clinical studies and with a vaccine whose qualification is far from meeting international standards, poses problems of medical ethics.

"If A.I.D.S. existed, Bomboko ** would already be dead, is not it, doctor?" then joking Mobutu!

         Furious at the American reaction, President Mobutu, who had helped finance Professor Lurhuma's work and hoped to gain some prestige, would have ordered seropositive soldiers to vaccinate themselves at M.M.1. and serve as guinea pigs. No scientific journal had the courage to follow the results.
         Despite the harsh criticism of the American Press, Dr. Daniel Zagury Shawfik was the star of the third conference on the V.I.H./S.I.D.A. in Washington in June 1987. In the evening of November 1987, at the Zaire Trade Center (C.C.I.Z.), Dr. Lurhuma and Zagury were welcomed as heroes. Dr. Lurhuma spoke first: "We have just developed a treatment for S.I.D.A. called Mr.M.1, from the names of our two respective heads of state, Mr. Mobutu and Mr. Mubarak. The results of the first tests allow us to hope that an inexpensive remedy will be quickly put on the market ".

         Four years later in 1991, at the Saint-Antoine hospital in Paris, three patients with S.I.D.A. in the terminal phase have died following the injection of a vaccine virus preparation given by Dr. Zagury. Meanwhile, Mobutu offers Dr. Lurhuma a beautiful villa at Mandariniers Avenue 4, at Kinshasa/Gombe, as a reward for his "brilliant" discovery.

From the formal prohibition of the vaccine to the stigma of its authors!

Professor Luc Antoine Montagnier, discoverer of S.I.D.A. in 1983, wrote: "The administration of preparations containing potentially infectious vaccinia virus to seropositive subjects should be suspended", vaccinia is a dangerous virus in immunocompromised individuals. In 1992, the doctor  Zagury is found not guilty by France.
         In Kinshasa, the vaccine that took the name of Mobutu-Mubarak 1 (M.M.1.) becomes a subject of mockery. The two doctors Egyptian and Zairian become subject of taunt. A very popular French beer then in Kinshasa brand "Castel" is translated by: "C
ure anti AIDS Tested and Experienced by Lurhuma". The episode of M.M.1. was a snub for Mobutu until his death in September 1997. While denying the existence of A.I.D.S., he had to deplore the death of A.I.D.S. of his eldest son Niwa Mobutu Jean-Paul in September 16 1994. His younger son Kongulu Mobutu, also dead of A.I.D.S., followed him on  September, 24, 1998.
         Become the laughingstock of Radio-Sidewalk in Kinshasa, Dr. André Zirimwabagabo Lurhuma died unexpectedly in Kinshasa on June 1, 1995. A foundation that bears his name, created in 1996 by his friend, the former Minister of Foreign Affairs
, Mushobekwa Kalimba wa Katana (1943-2004) in Kinshasa is administered by his son Patrick Lurhuma ... while the Catholic University of Bukavu (U.C.B.) created in November 1989 in Karhale has quickly erase his name from the medical laboratory that had once worn him proudly.
** Justin-Marie Bomboko Lokumba Iselenge (1928-2014), Congolese politician, hot rabbit, occupied almost all prestigious positions in the Democratic Republic of Congo since 1960.

-NGANGURA Mweze (ex D.), MM1 and the AIDS VACCINE. the discovery of MM1 by Dr. Lurhuma of the University of Kinshasa, Documentary.
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