samedi 19 février 2011

Joachim Barbosa: first «Black», member of the Brazilian Supreme Court of Justice since 1829.



Unjust repaired after 130 years of republican history.

On 25 June 2003 in Brasilia runs an event without precedent in the history of Brazil. During a solemn ceremony attended by Minister of Justice, Marcio Thomaz Bastos three new judges take oath before assuming their duties at the Federal Supreme Court of Brazil.
One of three said with emotion: "I imagine how many people, how many blacks will feel represented by my person! This is a huge responsibility». «I see this as an act of great importance to society that signals the end of some visible and invisible barriers ». He has dark skin and called Joaquim Benedito Barbosa Gomes.
In Brazil, 45% of the 173 million people consider themselves black. Behind the colorful and variegated proud of Brazil lies a different reality. When you descends the social ladder, as skin color "dark." Here black is the color of despair. Ebony skins are much more difficulties than whites and mestizos to access to education, health, housing and employment.
The appointment of the black singer Gilberto Passos Gil Monteiro, in January 2003 as Minister of Culture was a big step but not enough given its immense popularity. This rather recalls the transition from footballer Edison Arantes do Nascimento, aka Pele, Ministry of Sports from 1995 to 1998.
President Luis Ignacio Lula Da Silva (2003-2011), lover of Africa had to go further with the appointment Benedito Barbosa Gomes Joachim. In the history of the Supreme Court of Brazil, there were two colored: «A fair complexion», Pedro Augusto Carneiro Lessa (1859-1921), Minister of Justice of the Supreme Court from 1907 until his death July 25, 1921 and "dark mulatto», Hermenegildo de Barros Rodrigues (1866-1955), Chairman of the Supreme Tribunal of Justice of Brazil from 1919 until his retirement in 1937. Coincidentally, both were born in Minas Gerais.

The sinuous path of the son of Mason Paracuta.

Son of a bricklayer, born in 1955 in the village of Paracatu, Minas Gerais, he attended primary school Dom Serafim Gomes Garden. At 16, he left his village of Paracuta to settle her aunt to Gama suburb of the capital to follow his secondary schooling at White Elephant in Brasilia.
He lives in a boarding school while attending law school at the University of Brasilia and pay for his studies, he works nights as a graphic designer in the printing of the Senate.
After obtaining his degree in public law at the State University of Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), he teaches constitutional and administrative law. In 1994 he defended a doctoral thesis in Public Law at the University of Paris II (Panthéon-Assas) entitled: "The Supreme Court in the Brazilian political system."
He then worked at the Brazilian Embassy in Finland. Back in Brasilia, becomes an employee including U.S. Attorney's Office until his appointment to the Supreme Court of Justice of Brazil.
Besides his native Portuguese, he speaks fluent French, English, German and Finnish.

When Africans discover beriberi became "Brazil".

Contrary to what one learns today young Brazilians, this is not the Genoese Christopher Columbus (1451-1506) who discovered Brazil in 1452, but the Malians in 1312, that is to say 181 years before that. It is thanks to the adventurous spirit of Mansa Abubakr II.
Great-nephew of the powerful emperor Mandingo, Sundiata, Mansa of Mali becomes in 1300 and left his throne to his son Kankou Moussa in 1312 to undertake the crossing of the Atlantic Ocean.
Before starting his adventure, he began browsing among Arab admirals and gets a large fleet called "Farafina (Black Africa).
His project raised an outcry at the imperial court, but he persists. It sends a first exploratory expedition called "Badenya" who disappears without a trace. Despite this, he decided to embark from the coast of the Gambia today with hundreds of boats flying the flag Mandingo along which are more than 20,000 sailors and captains from all over the empire of Mali.
In the middle of the Ocean, a bloody uprising led by Queen Salimata and the griot of the court erupted on board of the vessels. After mate and after a thousand adventures, he decides to continue the journey. Badly wounded, he died just before his expedition reaches the coasts of the country he had given orders to call "Beriberi" (now Brazil) in 1312.
The Mandingo christen the place of their landing "Bure-Bambuko (current Pernambuco)" in tribute to the two cities Mandingo who had financed the expedition.
His story is told in "ab Masalik Absar fi Al Mamalik Amsar" written by the Egyptian-Syrian, Ibn Fadl Al-Umar (1301-1349), published in Cairo in 1312.

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