mardi 29 mars 2011

Rwanda: The Mwami who inspired the movie «King Solomon’s Mines»


Mwami Ruganzu II Ndoli "Cyambarantama" alias "Umbopa".

The most famous of the line of Bami Banyiginya Rwanda. He succeeded his father Ndahiro Cyamatare II (1477-1510). After a childhood spent with her ​​aunt, Nyabunyana, Queen of Karagwe where his father had sent him to preserve him from the intrigues of the court, he was recalled from exile by Kavuna.
To travel incognito in Rwanda, he disguises himself as a beggar covered with a thick sheepskin. Hence his nickname Cyambarantama. Inducted alongside the Queen Mother Nyiraruganzu Nyabacuzi II (clan Abakono). His reign began in 1510 put an end to the two kings and usurpers Byinshyi and Juru.

Nyirarumaga, the queen-mother poet and archivist of the tradition.

Hometown Gihogwe cya Jali, she became an orphan very young. In her youth, she hides the Mwami Ruganzu Ndoli II in his home to escape the assassins sent by Byinshi, his uncle, claiming the throne and his nemesis.
Discovered and surrounded on all sides, and on the advice of Nyirarumaga the king bare hands to dig a tunnel in the center of the house in which he escapes. This tunnel is known as the "Umwoobo w'Inyaga" in the history of Rwanda.
Adoptive mother became queen under the name Nyiraruganzu II, the poet revolutionizes "war epic poetry (Ibitekerezo)", elevated to an official institution entrusted to the families of "Aedes" that assure the preservation of pieces from generation to generation under the authority of the "prefect of dynastic poets.
According to tradition, the poet founded the Chair of the Poets "Intebe y'abasizi", a Royal Institute whose goal was to promote and safeguard the art of poetic composition "Gusiga.
Herself comprises a number of poems. After gathering and codified the literary knowledge of previous generations, it establishes a system for collecting and recording new works of literary infallible.
Chanters and composers "Abasizi" withdraw into solitude and silence "Kuji nganzo mu" to tap into their compositions transcendental meditation "Gukama ijuru.
To sustain the structures of the institution, the queen sends the first adoptive mother bards teaching poetry, chronicles the story "Ibitekerezo" Science and pedigree Ubucurabwenge "to" Intore (Politicians) "in schools called" Amatorero "courses of provincial lords. Abbe Alexis Kagame (1912-1981) has collected 176 poems from the last "Abasizi" which he recorded in two books: The Dynastic Poetry of Rwanda (1951) and Introduction to Great lyric genres of former Rwanda (1969 ).

Between legend and historical facts

The legend presents him as a king magician always accompanied by his faithful pygmy (Mutwa), his dogs with indelible impressions of his monkey. His footprints could still be observed in the sixties on the lava rocks in the volcanic plain of Jomba, in the region of Rutshuru in North Kivu (!). Again according to legend, Ruganzu II Ndoli milked milk from heaven to feed his kingdom.
Conqueror, he became the first king to build a national army from his personal guard "Ibisumizi" which are embedded in other companies. He entrusted the command to Muvunyi to be replaced later by his trusted advisor Mpande Rusange ago. Recruitment is from the age of ten years.
He leads a war against Ndorwa (southwestern Uganda) and conquered successively Bunyambiriri the Bwishyaza the Itambire, Kinyaga and Bugoyi. He reorganized the administration and replaces drum Rwogera by Kalinga dynasty (whose production is entrusted to the Minyaruko Busiga) to which it adds other ritual drums.
He establishes the worship of Gihanga whose fire maintained in a sanctuary in the royal court was never extinguished. He establishes the contract customer "Ubuhake" known in neighboring Burundi by the name of "Ubugabire." Under this contract, the boss (shebuja) provides one or more heads to his client (umugaragu) while reserving the bare property these cattle.
In return, he ensures the client's protection. In return, the client must attend the boss at every opportunity and became his servant (umuhakwa). The relationship is hereditary and only the owner is entitled to break it and claim not only the return of the original cattle but also all the cattle of the client .
This contract becomes the pillar of the kingdom Nyiginya will be officially abolished in 1953 by Christian Mwami, Charles Rudahigwa Mutara III (1912-1959) under pressure from the Belgian colonial administration and the Catholic Church.

The tragic end of Umbopa and his legacy

It was at Ruganzu Ndoli reign that the kingdom of Rwanda must practice as the feast of first fruits (Umuganura) and Mourning (Gicurasi) to celebrate the death of his father Ndahiro Cyamatare II.
He  establishes tax (inkuke) and human sacrifice at the inauguration of the new Mwami. He reinforces his army divided into eight militia to conquer the Bushi (Bunyabungo), the Bunyambiriri (Gikongoro) and the entire region of volcanoes.
During a military campaign in Rusenyi, he was badly wounded in the eye and died at the Matyazo Nyantango in 1543 leaving the throne to Mutara I Semugeshi Nsoro Muyenzi alias.
In 1950, he inspired the character "allegory" of Umbopa in "King Solomon's Mines", the movie became a classic of Compton Bennett (1900-1974) and Andrew Marton (1904-1992) starring Stewart Granger (1913-1993), Deborah Kerr (1921-2007) and Richard Carlson (1912-1977).
"Inganzo za Mushonga", name of an iron mine by extension becomes royal and figuratively a wealth of treasures "Inganzo." Is this perhaps why some European legends placed the mines of King Solomon (another King wise) in Rwanda?

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