dimanche 3 avril 2011

Hitimana, code name of Adolf Hitler in Rwanda



To overcome the reluctance of Mwami Rwanda, Yuhi V Musinga during the integration of his kingdom in the "Deutsch Ost-Afrika" in 1890, the German resident Richard Kandt (1867-1918) moved to Kigali to intervene in custody the affairs of the royal family (Nyanza) and government.
He maintains excellent relationships with the Mwami Musinga who learns to read and write Swahili. He even learned the basics of German and maintains a regular correspondence with the Emperor William II (1852-1918). At the end of WWI and the defeat of Germany, Rwanda falls to Belgium for the distribution of war.
 
In August 1918, the kingdom of Rwanda is reduced to its current size (26,338 km²) loser Bufumbira (Uganda), Gisaka the Buganza, Mutara ultramontane and his party: the Bwishya, and the Buhunde Gishari and Idjwi Island in Lake Kivu now become part of Belgian Congo. Mwami Musinga crying including the loss of Sake, his native village in North Kivu.
In 1921, in a letter addressed to His Majesty Albert I (1875-1934), King of the Belgians, he tried unsuccessfully to use the same emotional arguments to bring the Europeans not to dismember Rwanda: "My mother Nyirayuhi that j love dearly has experienced many disappointments in his life.. That is why I am convinced that if I ask you something for my mother, myself and my children, you can not deny my request. Have pity on my mother and my children. All of us here in our country, we cry, thinking that we want to divide Europe into Rwanda."
 
In December of that year, was raised when the "deal of Gisaka" (surrendered in Rwanda in 1923), he said sad and angry at the time: "It would be better to be shot rather than see my country torn in two by these white invaders.
Now he began to despise all Europeans and especially the Belgians he regarded as "men with no word of honor." ... And dreaming of the days of Germans who had helped him to reconquer the north in 1912.
In 1924, the mandate entrusted to Belgium to Rwanda (and Burundi) by the League of Nations (SDN) was a "civilizing mission based on a system of indirect rule.". But against all odds, new colonial authorities interfered in the affairs of the kingdom and considerably reduced the prerogatives of his powers.
Ignoring such as the royal custom forbade a king named Yuhi to cross a river during his reign, the Belgian colonial authorities summoned at random through meetings in Butare and Kigali that boycotted it without explanation. Several other customs, including polygamy (he was married to five women), the right of the sword, etc. new converts were prohibited by Catholic missionaries.
Thus he refused baptism imposed on him by the french bishop Mgr Léon Paul Classe (1874-1945), vicar apostolic of Rwanda, saying "Hitimana, it is God who uses the name".
In 1931, he said the ruler of Rwanda, "Musinga became an element of discord, suspicion, embarrassment for all, no use to the country and a great inconvenience to the government."
 
On 16 November 1931, four days after his testimony, Deputy Governor General of Ruanda-Urundi, Charles Voisin (1887-1942) enthroned his son 20 years Rudahigwa, under the dynastic name Mutara III (1912-1959.
 Musinga  was accused of « selfishness and lust » was recorded in residence at Kamembe (Cyagungu), on the border with the Congo.
Topics Rwandan who had not been consulted constituted one of the first political opposition the most imaginative of Africa. To continue to supply it with victuals, money, and to receive his instructions, they hide in cross-border traders traveling, intelligence officers and relay of information.
The Queen Mother Kanjogera not stand much opprobrium died in 1933.
In 1939, when it was declared the second world, the Nazis who had promised to restore to power once they have won the war and were spending their propaganda and. progression of these dealers by German front of a new genre. From Kigoma and Dar es Salaam in Tanzania today, through a complex network, goods and information were routed from hand to hand and passed from mouth to ear.
The Belgians did not understand how these people were so uneducated informed about a world war so far from home, forbidden to pronounce the name of Adolf Hitler (1889-1945) in the region.
Thus, to circumvent this prohibition, they nicknamed German Chancellor "Hitimana."
"How's Hitimana," ! "He's fine" is hailed between then. On the basis of suspicion, the Mwami was even jailed twice and released each time without trial.
Amplified at will, the pro-German forced the Belgian colonial authorities to relegate Musinga Yuhi V in Moba, Kalemie near the shores of Lake Tanganyika from 18 June 1940.
Accused of wanting to be proclaimed king in the region, he was again imprisoned and then released without trial.
On 13 January 1944, he died at age 61 without ever seeing Rwanda. Would he learned that the Germans were losing the Second World War?

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