samedi 25 juin 2011

Rwanda: The first woman in history convicted of rape and genocide.


Pauline Nyiramasuhuko "Welcome to hell ..."!

        
Born in 1946 in the town of Ndora in southern Rwanda, she is called Nyiramasuhuko which means more or less "Welcome." Her parents are farmers Ndora, a small village, six miles east of Butare where most of the crimes alleged against him were committed.
        
During high school at the School of Social Karubanda, she met Agathe Kanziga, who later married the man who would become the second president of the Republic of Rwanda, Juvenal Habyarimana (1937-1994). After high school, she went to Kigali and becomes official at the Ministry of Social Affairs.
         With the support of Agathe Habyarimana Kanziga, the First Lady of Rwanda, she quickly climbed the ranks to become national inspector of Social Affairs.

Married to Maurice Ntahobali "out of nowhere"

        
In 1968, she married Maurice Ntahobali (born 1939), whose name means "out of nowhere."
         The latter has a degree in mathematics from the University of Liege in Belgium. After teaching at the Rwanda National Institute of Education, he held several political and administrative functions in Rwanda.
         He becomes particularly Minister of Higher Education (1981), President of Parliament, president of the National University of Rwanda and Minister of Higher Education. He was a member of the Central Committee of the National Revolutionary Movement for Development (MRND).
         In 1970, their son Arsene Shalom was born.
In 1986, she enrolled in the Faculty of Law and earned a BA in 1990. Activist of the National Revolutionary Movement for Development (MRND) party to power, she was appointed Minister of Family Welfare and Advancement of Women in the multiparty government in 1992.
She is reappointed in 1993 and 1994 in the interim government after the death of President Juvenal Habyarimana on 6 April 1994.

The abomination for women!

        
On April 7, 1994, begins when the horror of genocide, it is sent to Butare by the interim government led by Jean Kambanda (September 4, 1998 sentenced to life imprisonment by the ICTR) to encourage the "Interahamwe" militias Hutu massacred the Tutsi to "systematically violate the Tutsi women before killing them."
Some witnesses recall "of his trip in a van around the district Runyinya, with a megaphone urging local people to kill the 'cockroaches' Tutsis and not even separe the elderly or the foetus." reports the Sunday Times of Rwanda in October 2002.
        
"As a woman, I do not understand that a woman who gave birth could cause people to violate other women (...). This was to eliminate the Tutsis not only physically but also psychologically . Whatever the penalty, I can never forgive him. " Rose tells Burizihiza (40), seventeen years after the genocide.

Her son, Shalom, "Peace in Hebrew," leader of the assassins, rapists.

        
His only son Arsene Shalom Ntahobali (sentenced to 25 years in prison), was the leader of the militia of Butare. After studying at Groupe Scolaire in Butare, he was admitted to St. Andrew's College and then to Kigali Gitwe (Gitarama province, center) before being enrolled in the National University of Rwanda in Butare.
        
During the genocide that took more than a million victims, more than 250,000 women were raped by their tormentors and between April and July 1994. Butare province alone has more than 30,000 rape survivors. An estimated 70% of women raped during the genocide have contracted AIDS.
        
Five thousand children from these rapes were recorded nine months later. Trauma victims is immeasurable and will be felt for generations.
        
After the genocide, fearing the vengeance of the army of the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF), and the vengeance of the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF), she fled first to Bukavu, in Democratic Republic of Congo and in Nairobi, Kenya where she lived for three years.
On 18 July 1997, she was arrested by the Kenyan authorities and handed to the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR), created on November 8, 1994 by Resolution 955 of the Security Council of the United Nations and imprisoned in Arusha, Tanzania.
         Six days later, her son Arsene Shalom Ntahobali, a former student at the National University of Rwanda was also arrested and transferred to the ICTR in Arusha.
        
Without them, "the genocide would not have been possible in Butare," said at the opening of a long indictment, April 20, 2009, Holo Makwaia.

Other Rwandan women guilty of genocide!

        
Two Rwandan nuns were convicted were sentenced in June 2001 by the Assize Court of Brussels: Sister Gertrude, alias Consolata Mukangango (15 years 'imprisonment) and Sister Kizito, alias Julienne Mukabutera (12 years' imprisonment).
        
Rwandan courts tried and convicted of other women for participation in the genocide, one of which was executed in April 1998 along with other offenders.
        
Ms. Agnes Ntamabyariro, former justice minister arrested in Zambia on 27 May 1997, is charged with "planning the genocide, genocide and crimes against humanity, planning meetings and organizing the genocide in Nyanza (south) and Kibuye (west), the prefecture of origin, campaigns, distribution of weapons, the killing of Jean Baptiste Habyarimana, then prefect of Butare, and the godson of her husband. "
         At 60, she was sentenced to life imprisonment on January 19, 2009 by the Court of First Instance of Nyarugenge (Kigali).
Born in 1937, daughter of a Hutu father and Tutsi mother of one, it was justice minister in the interim government, cold "public salvation government," put in place in Rwanda during the 1994 genocide.
        
In August 2008, she had vainly asked the ICTR, based in Arusha, Tanzania, to help her not to return to Rwanda after testifying in favor of her colleague Pauline Nyiramasuhuko.
        
But unlike all these crimes, the minister for the promotion of the family had an immense power over the hordes of criminals.
        
"She was a woman of power and during the genocide it was followed. Hordes of killers were under his command, "said the American historian Alison Des Forges (1942-2009).

And if Lucifer was a woman?

        
August 10, 1999, eleven charges are brought against the former minister of the "Promotion of Women": "Genocide, Crimes against humanity and war crimes." Her trial opened June 12, 2004, before the second trial chamber presided by Judge William Hussein Sekule, assisted by Judges Arlette Ramaroson of Madagascar and Judge Balunda Solomy Bossa from Uganda.
        
On Friday, June 24, 2011, after ten years of proceedings, she is condemned to life imprisonment. Pauline Nyiramasuhuko becomes the first woman in history of the world, to be convicted of genocide and crimes against humanity by an international court.
        
In the annals of international justice, she is the first woman in the world to be guilty of rape as a crime against humanity.

A historical precedent was born in Serbia.

        
In 1946 a law established by the Allies and for the courts to judge war crimes German described the rape as a crime against humanity, but it had never been applied. In 1995, the International Criminal Tribunal for Yugoslavia (ICTY), rape was designated simply as a crime equivalent to torture.
        
On July 14, 1997, the police officer Serbian Dusan "Dusko" Tadic (born in Bosnia in 1955) convicted and sentenced to 20 years in prison for various crimes, including rape of a woman in a Bosnian prison camp. Tadic had indeed tortured two Bosnian prisoners, forcing one of them to pull the testicles of another with his teeth. Man mutilated died of hemorrhage.
        
This act was a crime against humanity. International justice had created a historical precedent.
Now the Rwandan Pauline Nyiramasuhuko is the first abominable "monster" face of this precedent!

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