vendredi 9 septembre 2011

Albania: Enxer Hoxha, the dictator graphomaniac.



Edmond Tupja, the French voice of Enver Hoxha

         A graduate of the Sorbonne in Paris, he had translated Proust and Sartre. After translation into French the speeches of Enver Hoxha, Edmond Tupja became a teacher of translation at the Faculty of Foreign Languages ​​at the University of Tirana, while continuing his writing career.
         He then translated into French various Albanian authors such as Fatos Kongola, Mimoza Ahmeti, Stefan Cepaliku, Ismail Kadare and transposed into a philosophical essay of Albanians Artan Fuga originally written in French.
         In 1979, he was 30 years old and is a French teacher in Gramsh, when he was appointed translator for the publishing house "November 8," which published the works of Enver Hoxha.
         He did not know that now he became almost a slave to serve the Albanian dictator: endless hours of work without summer vacation.
         He acknowledged in the pages of Le Figaro that he was forced to become one of the translators of the works of "Great Leader": "Deny, suicide was a real and serious threat to my family. I had little choice. In 1976, the government had interned in the depths of a provincial village to "cleanse me" and educate my children. In 1979, thanks to my skills, I was asked to translate the memories, speeches and works of Enver Hoxha. "
        
He also adds that he feels no remorse, because there was no escape ... On the other hand, translated authors like Proust, Grack, Tournier and Desnos, brought a semblance of freedom.
        
         Convinced Marxist during the reign of Enver Hoxha, in 1990 it is part of three hundred intellectuals, defenders of the democratic system.
         Divorced twice for political reasons, Xhilda, his third wife gave him an autistic child.
         With his wife, he published "Pipiruqi Ruqipipi and secrecy of the broom."
He is the author of four books of poetry and a book published by L'Harmattan in Paris entitled "Souvernirs of a translator," in which he retraces the entire period during which he worked for the literary to glory of Enver Hoxha .

Typical day of a translator of the "Great Leader"


         In Tirana, Edmond Tupja worked in the same office as Jusuf Vrioni. Their only tools: the little Robert, Robert, and a Grand Larousse Encyclopedic.
         Ten hours a day were needed to match the dates of publication with the important events in the life of the "Great Leader"
         To translate the works of Enver Hoxha, nuance and subjectivity should be minimized, like it or not.
         That's why, markers were legion. Sometimes even the dictator, who knew French, he interested him personally.
         "The translation of a work of Enver Hoxha was happening in a stressful environment: it had to do quickly and well. We started at seven o'clock in the morning, each to his typewriter. We were three in the same office. Sometimes we did not even have time to read our translations.
         When we did not know, we turned to Jusuf Vrioni we met while continuing his work. After a coffee break around 10:30, we resumed until 14 hours. Before lunch, we had to make the original text, our translations, and even carbon paper, the head of our editorial. He locked in a safe.
         At 16 hours, we put the book up to 18 hours. With Jusuf Vrioni, the French versions of works of Enver Hoxha were linguistically impeccable, even if we did not have writers in our editorial teams as opposed to translation into Spanish, German or English. "


         Most of these foreign writers were convinced Communists, therefore politically trustworthy. However, they were not allowed to spread in private conversations. This was also the case for Vrioni Jusuf, who himself was politically unreliable.
         Each translation of a work of Enver Hoxha, they received a visit from a special envoy of the Institute of Marxist-Leninist Studies. His presence was needed to decrypt the original text, not yet published:          "Indeed, all the works of Enver Hoxha was published simultaneously in Albanian and foreign languages. Translations were reviewed and controlled by foreign trustworthy, under the control of the Institute of Marxist-Leninist Studies. "


Enver Hoxha considers himself as Shakespeare
.

         "Enver thought he was Shakespeare,"
he wrote in "Le Figaro": "He was a graphomaniac, the author of some ninety volumes ... He has written on diverse subjects ranging from sports to foreign policy, to zoology (goats) and literature. "
        
Enver Hoxha we know was not alone, that even if many of his books were in fact the product of a collective effort of the Institute of Marxist-Leninist Studies in Tirana.
         Born in Gjiro Kastro October 16, 1908, he led Albania from 1945 until his death April 11, 1985.
         After his university studies at the University of Montpellier in France and at the Free University of Brussels (without graduating), he became a teacher at the French lycée Korçë where he was sent to political activism in 1939. He moved to Tirana where he became a bistro and a tobacconist.
         In 1941 he was elected general secretary of the Communist Party and leader of the executive committee of the Provisional Government in 1943.
         October 22, 1945, he was elected president of the democratic government of Albania and Minister of National Defence.
         On January 11, 1946, he proclaimed the People's Republic of Albania.
         Under his Marxist-Leninist dictatorship, the country was plunged into total isolation. In 1967, he declared Albania the first atheist state in the world!
         Any criticism was severely repressed. Marxist doctrine defined by Enver Hoxha governing all areas of thought and art.
         The religion was banned and members of the clergy, Muslim, Orthodox or Catholic, had to stop work on pain of imprisonment.
         A symbol: Tirana was a city without a car, whose possession was prohibited except for official cars. All this leads to morbid paranoia of a man trapped in his system.
         He died in Tirana April 12, 1985, leaving a ruined country for Albanians.

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