jeudi 22 septembre 2011

"Kassaman", the Algerian national anthem was composed in jail.


"We are fighters for the triumph of law.
For our independence, we went to war.
No lending ear to our demands.
We have the guns punctuated the rhythm ·
And hammered at the rate of machine guns.
Because we decided that Algeria shall live.
Be in control! Be in control! Be in control! "


         On July 5, 1962, when the Algerians sing "Kassaman (the oath)," Anthem of the Algerian revolution, became the national anthem, they are unaware that his words were composed in 1956 in a prison cell of Serkaji-Barbarossa in Algiers.
         Indeed, the poet-Sheikh Zakaria Moufdi Zekri, its composer is serving a sentence of three months after his arrest in April 1956. In 1955, he is approached by Lakhdar Rebah, then head of the FLN in Algiers at the request of "the architect of the revolution" Abane Ramdane (1920-1957) and future first president of the Provisional Government of the Algerian Republic (GPRA). Benyoucef Benkeddah (1920-2003), he composed the immortal words of "Kassaman-We swear! ".
         One of his other poems "Fach'hadou-Feel it! " had not rained for two fighters of the Front de Liberation Nationale (FLN). That same year, his words are set to music by the Tunisian Mohamed Turki (with the help of a choir Algeria), the partition is refined later by the Egyptian Mohamed Fawzi (Habbas Elhaw) (1918 to 1966 ). This song is the first tangible fruit of a collaboration Maghreb.

Cheick-Zekri Zakaria Moufdi "national poet".

         He was born April 12, 1913 in Beni Izguen (Mzab). His real name is Sheikh Zakaria Ben Slimane Ben Slimane Ben Yahia Ben Cheikh Hadj Aissa. After studies in Beni Izguen, he studied at Annaba before heading to Tunisia, where he continued his studies in both Arabic and French at school and then to El Khaldounia El Attarine school.
         In Tunisia, he took part in the founding of the Nationalist Party "Destour." Back in Algeria, he was active from 1925 in the Muslim Students Association in North Africa.
         In 1933, he joined the North African Star and the Algerian People's Party (PPP) founded by Messali Hadj (1898-1974). He composed his first nationalist songs including "Fidaou alabama (The sacrifice of Algeria),"
the anthem of the Algerian People's Party (PPP).
         Arrested August 22, 1937, he was released in 1939 and then detained again in February 1940 for six months. Restaurateur, he collaborated in the drafting and distribution of underground newspapers al-Watan
and L'Action Algerian. In 1945 he was arrested again for three months before joining the Movement for the Triumph of Democratic Liberties (MTLD). It is unsuccessful candidate for election to the Algerian Assembly.
         In 1955, he joined the National Liberation Front (FLN). In April 1956 he was arrested and imprison the prison-Serkaji Barbarossa in Algiers and then Berrouaghia. In his prison cell in Serkaji-Barbarossa in Algiers, he composed "Kassaman (The Oath)"
, the anthem of Algerian revolution became the national anthem of Algeria July 5, 1962.
         Its set to music was made in 1956 by the Tunisian Mohamed Turki then by the Egyptian Mohamed Fawzi. Upon his release after three months of jail, he went into exile in Tunisia for treatment by the psychiatrist Frantz Fanon (1925-1961), the aftermath of the torture suffered in prison.
         April 21, 1961, he was awarded the Medal of the intellectual capacity of the first degree of King Mohamed V (1909-1961). In Tunisia, he worked at the newspaper F.L.N. "El Mujahid" to the independence of Algeria in 1962.

A belated recognition and a posthumous fame.

         He died in Tunis, August 17, 1977. He was posthumously awarded by Tunisian President Habib Bourguiba (1903-2000) and the Algerian President, Chadli Bendjedid and Abdelaziz Bouteflika.         
         An Algerian  foundation bearing his name perpetuates his memory. The Palace of Culture in Algiers bears his name and a poetry contest "Zakaria Moufdi" is held annually since 2004 by the Cultural Association and the National Jahidhiya Related Rights (ONDA).
         His body was repatriated to Algeria and buried in his hometown of Beni Yezguen (Ghardaia).
         He is considered as the national poet. On 17 August 1997, at the 20th anniversary of his death, 42 years after the creation of the national anthem, a stamp was developed in recognition of his work and his long struggle.
         His son, Sheikh Sliman, president of the University of Algiers was an analysis of the liberation war of Algeria in "Algeria in weapons or the time of certainties" (Economica, Paris, 1981).

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