lundi 17 octobre 2011

Anti-racism on both sides of the Atlantic: “Tintin in the Congo” and “The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn”.

A Congolese complaint against "Tintin in Congo"

In early July 2007, the British Commission for Racial Equality (CRE) had accused the author of "Tintin in the Congo" to "show racism through the book and the promotion of violent scenes in against animals. "

         On July 23, 2007, Bienvenue Mbutu Mondondo, a student of political science at the Free University of Brussels filed a complaint against the company managing the rights of the artist Hergé "Marlinspike" before the Belgian courts for violations of the laws on racism and calls for withdrawal from sale of the album "Tintin in the Congo"
and a symbolic one euro in damages. In August 2009, he also filed a complaint in France.

         "I want us to stop to sell this comic, whether for children or for adults. The book is racist, colonialist propaganda-filled. It is not permissible to cry on Tintin Villagers are forced to work in the construction of a railway or his dog Snowy treats them lazy, "
said the complainant.

         In the 70's, the designer, Georges Prosper Remi (aka Hergé) (1907-1983) had himself deciphered the positive discourse on colonization of the album:

         "In the Congo, just like Tintin in the Land of the Soviets, it is that I was fed the prejudices of middle-class in which I lived ... It was in 1930. I knew this country than telling people at the time:-The Negroes are big children, fortunately, we are there!, Etc.. And I have drawn, these Africans, according to those criteria, in the true spirit of paternalism which was that time in Belgium. "

         In 2007, "Tintin in the Congo" was removed for racism-rays of Children Borders bookstores in Britain and the United States.

         South African publishers of Hergé, Human & Rousseau, who publish in a usual Afrikaans the adventures of the little reporter, had decided not to bring this album.

         On September 9, 2009, the Representative Council of Black Associations (CRAN) Wednesday asked the Minister of Culture Frédéric Mitterrand to comment on the possible addition of a warning in the introduction to the album "Tintin in the Congo."

         On September 3, 2009, Hedi Putallaz (33), a resident of Monthey in the canton of Valais in Switzerland was also brought against "Tintin in the Congo" and demanded that the album be withdrawn from sale and removed from libraries throughout Switzerland . Mother and Tunisian father Valais, Putallaz is married to a citizen of Trinidad and Tobago.

         "This cartoon mimics the anti-black stereotypes most abject featuring characters lazy and stupid. It's not that way we inculcate the values ​​of tolerance for children"

         The Brooklyn Public Library (New York) has classified "Tintin in the Congo" among the works "offensive", as well as "Mein Kampf" by Adolf Hitler (1889-1945) and "Tropic of Capricorn" by Henri Miller (1891-1980), books off the shelves and classified as "Hell" room reserved for banned books.

         Sweden and Germany, but rather the mistreatment of animals is the basis scandal: Tintin is such dynamite explode a rhinoceros which prevents down from the tree where he took refuge!

         But nobody (Hergé did he know himself?) Does not notice that the song of the boatmen White Father "Uélé Maliba Makasi"
was the refrain of a jingle ironic Lingala black quota of the Police Force of the column Dhanis to denounce their abuse imposed by the Congo Free State "Uélé! Maliba Makasi! Pamba tosali sali pamba! We fought for nothing Uélé! We used to hard water and terrible food! ".

         This passive resistance was to culminate in the bloody mutiny of the Force Publique known as the "Revolt of Batetela" in 1897.

         On October 24, 2010, at the Fair of the BD in Kinshasa, the Congolese Minister of Culture and Arts Kavira Mapera Jeannette was the defense of Belgian colonialism in defending "Tintin in the Congo" she described as "head -to work! "

         Published in 1931, the album is the second in a series of 23 cartoons that trace the adventures of Tintin, the intrepid reporter with the Tuft, and its famous little white dog Snowy. All numbers together, it has sold 220 million copies worldwide, translated into hundreds of languages.

         The small white reporter he eventually go to the boy by Coco what he has stolen: his dignity!

And two: The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn!

        Huckleberry Finn, best friend of Tom Sawyer is a character from the novel by Mark Twain published in 1885. "The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn" "where all the literature arises" by Ernest Hemingway are held on the Mississippi River.

         On 15 January 2007, he was ranked by the magazine "Time" as the fifth best book of all time! From 1920 to 1981, it was adapted to film eight times.
        On January 4, 2011, "The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn"
were dragged before the American courts because the book contains 219 times the word "negro".

         "It is shameful that a simple word can form such a barrier to students who appreciate the greatness of this story and depth of his social criticism," (...) races are important in the frame of the adventures of Huckleberry Finn and Tom Sawyer."
  “The whole question is how to express this idea the next century. "Says Alan Gribben Professor of English at Auburn University in Montgomery, Alabama.

         The word negro was erased from the book for American schoolchildren.

         "This book is a book racist and change the language changes its power,"
said Cindy Lowell, director of the Mark Twain Museum in Hannibal, Missouri.

Huck Finn and Mark Twain, I presume!

         Novelist, essayist and humorist, Mark Twain, whose real name was Samuel Langhorne Clemens was born November 30, 1835 in Florida, Missouri, USA. Fatherless at the age of 12, he held various activities: apprentice typographer, editor of the newspaper articles of his brother, steamboat pilot on the Mississippi. Not wanting to fight alongside the Southerners for the maintenance of slavery, he fled to the mountains of Nevada and became a gold digger.

         From 1864, he has journalistic in San Francisco and travels in Europe as a news correspondent. After his marriage to Olivia Langdon in 1870, he moved to Hartford, Connecticut.

         It is thanks to his two novels "The Adventures of Tom Sawyer" (1876) "
and" The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1885) "it acquires fame as a writer comedian. The end of his life is clouded by financial troubles and the death of one of his daughters and his wife. He died April 21, 1910 in Redding, Connecticut.

The Soliloquy of King Leopold and his Congo Free Cemetery.

         "Let us try to score his crimes. The list is endless, we will never after. Its terrible shadow stretches across the Congo Free State and under the shadow of an innocent nation of 15 million souls is wasting away and succumb quickly to his misery. It is a land of graves is the land of graves is the Congo Free Cemetery. It is a majestic thought: this episode the most dismal of all human history is the work of one man, one man, nothing that an individual: Leopold, King of the Belgians. He is personally and solely responsible for the myriad crimes that have blackened the history of the State of the Congo. It is the only person there and it is absolute. He could prevent crime just by his order, he could stop them now with a word, but he refrains from comment. Because of his pocket. "

In 1905, after the publication of these statements in the soliloquy of King Leopold, Mark Twain became vice-president of American section of the "Congo Reform Association" founded in London by Edmund Dene Morel (1873-1924) at the instigation of diplomat Irish Sir Roger Casement (1864-1916). He meets with U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt (1858-1919) to convince him to act for the Congo.

         On February 10, 1906, President Roosevelt (Nobel Peace Prize in 1906) he has made it clear through Barbour he did nothing in aid of the Congo, he resigned from his position as vice-president of the CRA.

         In Kinshasa, the Mark Twain Foundation, created by the U.S. Embassy in the Democratic Republic of Congo in 2009 provides literary prizes to Congolese writers.

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