jeudi 27 octobre 2011

Libya / Ancient Rome: The other Libyan dictator that has marked the history of the world.

Crossed destinies between the Roman Emperor Septimius Severus African (146-211 BC) and the former Libyan leader Gaddafi Mo'ammar (1942-2011).

         Mo'ammar Gaddafi is not the first Libyan dictator to hold in suspense the whole of humanity by his escapades and his death.
Another Libyan even more megalomaniac than he dreamed of conquering the world and is almost there.
         At his death, he was building the British fortifications of the Roman Empire, far from his native Tripoli: the famous Hadrian's Wall in England.
         But as his countryman and our contemporary Mo'ammar Gaddafi, his ultimate dream was to sit in the burning sands of his native country, which is now Libya.
         Curious historical coincidence: England and France who come to play a crucial role in the overthrow of Mo'ammar Gaddafi, played a role in the fate of Severus.
         The Emperor Afro-Roman died in 211 BC. while he strengthened the fortifications of the Roman Empire in Britain. His son, born in Lugdunum (Lyon Acts), Marcus Aurelius Antonius Bascanius, nicknamed "Caracalla" because of his flaming red gown, which granted Roman citizenship in 213 BC. the inhabitants of the conquered regions including the Transalpine Gaule (part of present-day France).
         Seventeen centuries later, by an agreement between Denis Dussault and Dey El-Hadj Abdallah in May 1693, the marble columns from Leptis Magna are sold to France and England and were used to improve Versailles, the castle of the french Sun King, Louis XIV, the Church of St. Germain des Près in Paris, Rouen Cathedral, and later the royal park in Windsor, England.
         Finally for those who love numerology, Septimius Severus died in 211 BC, while Mo'ammar Gaddafi died in 2011

Entered in history under the name " Septimus Severus"

         Aurelius Antonius Lucius Septimus Severus was born in Leptis Magna (now Lebdah) in Tripolitan on April 11 146 in an old senatorial family strain. His grandfather, a native of Libya and Roman patrician owned the land around the city of Rome. His father prefers to live in Libya. His mother was of Etruscan origin (Italy).
         He received a patrician education and studied in Rome. He was successively quaestor in Sardinia, legate of the proconsul of Africa, a tribune of the plebs, praetor, legate in Spain before taking the head of the Fourth Legion in Syria (171-180). In 175 he married Paccia Marcianne who bore him two daughters. After a stint in the Senate called for, it is forty-five when he was appointed head of the legation proconsul of Lyon and Sicily.
         During a brief respite, he enrolled at the University of Athens. In 180, he married his second wife Julia Domna, a Syrian (the Arabic name "Dumayna" means black), daughter of Julius Bassanius, High Priest of Baal of Emesa who gave him his two heirs Marcus Aurelius Antonius Bassanius said Caracalla ( Born in Lyon on April 4 188) and Lucius Septimus Geta (born in Rome on May 27 189).

A dramatic military and political career.

         January 1, 190, he was appointed consul before receiving Laetus of Thaenae, command of the Roman army of Pannonia, now numbering more than three legions. On December 31, 1992, death of the Emperor Commodus ends the Antonine dynasty. The next day he is replaced by the Emperor Pertinax is assassinated March 28 192 (87 days of reign). He was replaced by Julien Dide.
         When Septimius Severus, then Commander of the legions of Illyria (Balkans) and stays Carnutum learns the murder of Pertinax, he was proclaimed emperor of Rome by the legions of the Danube April 9th ​​193.

Imperator Caesar Augustus Lucius Septimus Severus Pertinax.

         He takes the name of Lucius Septimus Severus Pertinax. He is acclaimed "Imperator (IMP)" and takes possession of the tribune power (TRP). His title becomes "Imperator Caesar Augustus Lucius Septimus Severus Pertinax."
He combines with Clodius Albinus, commander of the legions of Gaul, to whom he awarded the title of Caesar. At the same time Pescennius Niger is acclaimed by his troops in Syria and takes Antioch as its capital. On June 1, 193, Dide Julian was assassinated while walking on Seventh Severus Rome, is acknowledged emperor by the Senate.
         Upon his triumphal entry into Rome  on September 9, 193, he received the title of Pontifex Maximus (High Priest) and his second consulate (COS II). Touchy, authoritarian dictator, he relies on the army to rule the Senate after being stripped of his power. His motto is: "Enrich the soldiers and make fun of the rest."
He organized the "annona" which requires farmers to maintain the army.
         Among his reforms in Africa, he created the province of Numidia. Insatiable conqueror, he overwrites the Parthians (ancestors of the Persians), conquered Seleucia, Ctesiphon, and destroyed its capital creates the province of Mesopotamia in 199 BC. J.C..
He spent the last years of his life to strengthen the British frontier of the Roman Empire.
         From 197, he rebuilt the famous Hadrian's Wall between the North Sea to the Irish Sea, from Newcastle to Carlisle (still visible today). Suffering from gout or arthritis in 208, he is obliged to be carried during the campaign against the Caledonians (210-211). He died in Eboracum (Acts York) Great Britain 4 February 211.

His ashes were returned to Libya

         His body was cremated and his ashes on the spot collected in an urn of porphyry are returned to Libya. His son and successor, Marcus Aurelius Antonius Bassianus said Caracalla, born in Lyons in 188, reigned from 211 to 217 (after eliminating his brother Geta). It is he who grants citizenship to all inhabitants of the Roman provinces after conquering Gaul in 212 BC. J.C., the Danube in 214 BC. J.C., Egypt in 215 BC. J.C. and Syria in 216.
         He was assassinated near Edessa (Upper Mesopotamia) in 217 by Macrinus, the praetorian prefect. The Severan dynasty with five emperors (Septimius Severus, Caracalla, Geta, and Alexander Severus Elagahal) ruled the Roman Empire from 193 to 235.

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