mercredi 23 novembre 2011

Ancient Egypt: Pharaoh Akhenaton returned from his last exile in 2002.


         Germany returned to Egypt fragments of the sarcophagus of King Akhenaten, Amenhotep IV. Over 80 years after his flight and illegal sale to Switzerland, the sarcophagus of Nefertiti's husband, inventor of monotheism was returned to Egypt.
         Discovered in 1907 in Luxor, Valley of the Kings, the lower part of the sarcophagus, entirely covered with gold, was stolen a few years later and reported missing in 1931. Switzerland had transferred it to the Museum of Fine Arts in Munich in Bavaria.
         In 1981, the museum director of the Egyptian Museum in Munich identified it in a private collection in Switzerland. After much discussion and several years of restoration polyester, the sarcophagus found its colors.
         In January 2001, President of the Supreme Council of Antiquities, Gaballah Ali Gaballah, went to Munich to sign an agreement for the return of this piece with the culture minister of Bavaria, Hans Zehetmair, ending a case that lasted for over 20 years.
         In May 2001, the head of the regional government of Bavaria, Edmund Stoiber Rüdiger Rudi, agrees to return for the loan prior lid of the sarcophagus for an exhibition.
         On January 25, 2002, he returned to Cairo accompanied by an official delegation led by Ali Gaballah Gaballah, then exposed to the Cairo Museum.
         Egypt still requires the bust sculpted limestone polychrome Nefertiti, wife of Pharaoh Akhenaton, discovered on the site of Tell el-Amarna in 1912 by German archaeologist Ludwig Borchardt and exposed to the Neues Museum in Berlin.
         "It was incredible to have half of the coffin here and half elsewhere,"
said Egyptian Minister of Culture Farouk Hosni, who demanded the return of other Egyptian art in the Louvre in Paris, in Berlin and in the British Museum in London.

Akhenaton, "Servant of the solar disk"

         He is the only son of Amenhotep III (1410-1372 BC.) And his Great Royal Wife Tiye. At birth, he received the name of Néferkhéperourê. He ascended the throne of the eighteenth dynasty          Pharaoh in 1353 at the age of 16 years under the name of Amenhotep IV or Amenophis IV. At twelve, he married his cousin, the famous Queen Nefertiti (the Belle came), children as him. She gives him six daughters: Meritaten (died in 1344 BC.) Néfernéferouaton, Ankhesenpaaton, Maketaton, and Néfernéferourê Setepenrê.
         The doctor and special adviser to his father taught him to transcend his poor health and direct his mind to the spiritual world.          Indeed, this young man of delicate constitution is reached the "sacred disease"
, epilepsy
         Under his advice, he abolished the worship of Amun in Year 4 of his reign and replaced by that of Aten, the solar disk where the new name of Akhenaten "servant of the solar disk"
in place of Amenhotep meaning "Amun is content".
         He considers Aten, the solar disk as the physical manifestation of Ra. Unlike Amon, invisible, the sun can be seen by all: just look up to heaven. He imposes the only god of Egypt, the bearer of "light, life, love and truth."
         Replacement of all other gods by the solar disk is a religious revolution as it introduces the notion of the Egyptian customs monotheism.
         He moved the capital from Thebes to Pharaonic Akhet-Aton (the horizon of the solar disk), now Tell el-Amarna in Middle Egypt to 320 Km further north.
         He is the composer of the Great Hymn to Aten. Very mystical, Akhenaton composed some hymns to the glory of Aten found in nearly original in the Psalms of the Bible. Moses, raised as an Egyptian prince, and almost a contemporary of King Akhenaten, he would have inspired it?
         On the political level, he behaves as an apostle of nonviolence refusing to defend the borders of Egypt. He loses the external territories of Egypt (Mitanni, Syria, Palestine). He ruled Egypt for ten years and was assassinated at the age of thirty years to 1341 BC.  
         He is succeeded by his bastard son, Tutankhamen (died at eighteen years old) with solid gold sarcophagus of a fabulous treasure was discovered intact in the Valley of the Kings November 26, 1922 by Briton Howard Carter.
         An army general, Horemheb, usurps power, marries a princess to be legitimized and proclaimed. He abandoned Akhet-Aton and proclaimed himself the successor of Amenhotep III after deleting the names of his predecessors Akhenaten, Tutankhamun and Sémemkharâ on all Egyptian monuments.

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