jeudi 10 novembre 2011

Chad / France: How Ngarta Tombalbaye François became a prominent politician in Chad.

From a dictionnary to a “Crime of lèse-majesté”
         In 1946, François Tombalbaye, elementary school principal in Koumra made a cotton field around the school by students in his class. The sale of this cotton reported 4,000 Francs to school.
Jean Le Lièvre, a young French student director was made aware of the recipe, came two volumes provide a dictionary of French available to the school principal.
The case was concluded and Jean Le Lièvre pocketed the money.
But quite often, the french man sent his guard to take the same dictionary for consultation.
One day, the manager refused to lend him the book saying he sold it to him and not given. Furious, Jean Le Hare went there and slapped Francis Tombalbaye after having dealt with all the names including "Dirty negro".
React violently, Francois Tombalbaye fell upon the young white and  shots him before all students bewildered. Alerted by the noise that the incident had caused the guards came running and freed their chief from the embrace of the monitor. Also according to the first wife of Tombalbaye, Jean Le Lievre was wounded in the face and spitting blood after the fight.
In one night, the news spread throughout Koumra like wildfire. "Tombalbaye beat a white man! ", heard one say to all corners. It was indeed the first time that Sara dared to strike a "commander" because they were all powerful and inspired fear in all the natives. Dare lay a hand on one of them was a "crime of lèse-majesté" calling an exemplary sanction.

An act of bravery became historical.

The gesture of Tombalbaye was considered an act of bravery. The incident happened in the absence of the District Manager, André Montal tour within his constituency. Upon his return, his subordinates gave him a detailed report of the incident. He sent a report to the administrator of the region of Moyen-Chari, Paul Romani.
On November 28, 1946, the latter merely transfer the rebel teacher Tombalbaye in Fort-Archambault (now Sahr). But the incident served as his springboard to his political career *.
Born June 15, 1918 at Bessada, he was elected Territorial Council Moyen-Chari in 1956, he became vice-president of the Council of French Equatorial Africa (AEF) in 1957. He was elected prime minister in 1959 and president in August 1960 and proclaimed the independence of Chad. Reelected in 1962 and in 1969, he turns into a dictator.
In July 1972, clumsily copying the policy of authenticity of the Zairian President Mobutu Sese Seko (1930-1997), he hardens his regime and attracts considerable mistrust of his fellow Muslims.
         In 1973, he violently attacks the former colonial power, France. The drift of his power and directly opens the civil wars of bloodshed in Chad until today.
On April 13, 1975, the father of "tchatitude," the president the most austere of black Africa is murdered during a violent military coup in N'Djamena liability under the gaze of the French army.

(* Extract from the book of Arnault Dingamandji « Ngarta Tombalbaye: parcours et rôle dans la vie politique du Tchad, 1959-1975. (Ngarta Tombalbaye: background and role in the political life of Chad, 1959-1975.)”, Harmattan, Paris, 2007).

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