dimanche 13 novembre 2011

South Africa: Max Theiler, the first African Nobel Prize.


Son of Sir Arnold Theiler and Emma, ​​of Swiss origin, born January 30, 1899 in Pretoria, South Africa. He attended primary and secondary in Pretoria except one year he spent in Basel, Switzerland, the region of origin of his father.
        
He continued his studies at Rhodes University College in Grahamstown (Province of Eastern Cape) and the School of Medicine, University of Cape Town from 1916 to 1918. He continued his medical training at St. Thomas Hospital and the School of Tropical Medicine in London where he graduated in 1922.
        
The same year he joined the Royal College of Physicians and Royal College of Surgeons. In 1922 he became assistant in the Department of Tropical Medicine at Harvard Medical School in Boston, Massachusetts.
        
In 1930, he was hired in the Division of International Health at the Rockefeller Foundation. In 1951 he became director of the laboratories of the Division of Medicine and Public Health of the Rockefeller Foundation in New York. At Harvard, his early research work related amoebic dysentery, fever transmitted due to the bite of rats and yellow fever.
        
In 1929, his research shows that the vector of yellow fever was not a bacteria but a virus filter and could be transmitted by the mouse. By working on these, his team was able to develop a vaccine candidate called "17 D" whose benefit was the ease of mass production.
        
He also works on the causes of immunology can be Weil's disease (bacterial disease). His research subsequently move towards dengue, Japanese encephalitis, polio and encephalitis (also called Theiler's disease). His work is rewarded with various honors including the Chalmer's Medal of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (London, 1939), Flattery Medal (Harvard, 1945) and the Lasker Award of the Lasker Foundation in 1949.
        
On December 11, 1951, he received the Nobel Prize in Medicine. He died in New Haven, Connecticut United States August 11, 1972.
        
Apart from the various scientific articles in journals such as "The American Journal of Tropical Medicine" and "anal of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology," he contributed to the drafting of two volumes:
-Viral and rickettsial infections of Man, 1948.
-Yellow Fever, 1951.

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