dimanche 6 novembre 2011

United Kingdom/South Africa: The Zulu and the British are burying the hatchet after 132 years.


On November 4, 2011, King Goodwill Zwelithini and Prince Charles of England visited the site where took place the last battle of the War of 1879 which ended in British victory and spent the end of the kingdom of AmaZulu (the son of heaven), founded by Emperor Shaka in South Africa in 1816.
         In Ulindi in the South African province of KwaZulu-Natal (east), birthplace of the Zulu nation, the two heirs gave a speech at the Palais Ondini where the British Army fought its final offensive against the forces of King Cetshwayo, shaving his palaces and ending the Total Independence of the Zulu nation.
         "Our relationship has never been without problems, but it has always been based on great admiration and deep respect,"
said Prince Charles arrived in South Africa, November 2, 2011, accompanied by his wife Camilla, for a four-day visit.
         "Our two great nations, Zulu and British share a rich history, sometimes good and sometimes worse. (...) Our meeting today marks a new beginning in our cooperation based on mutual respect and cooperation"
, said the traditional ruler of Zulu, Goodwill Zwelithini.

Prince Charles and King Goodwill Zwelithini declare an armistice.

         The crown prince of the British crown and his wife Camilla were welcomed at the Palace Ondini with the honors due to their ranks by a guard of honor Zulu warriors in traditional dress accompanied by religious songs while they were heading in a large room installed in a tent for the exchange of gifts.
         The two personalities have exchanged symbolic gifts full of history: Goodwill Zwelithini has offered to Prince Charles, a portrait of his ancestor, King of Zulu, Cetshwayo, defeated by the British.
         While Prince Charles offered to the Zulu chief a silver cup, a replica of that given by Queen Victoria to King Cetshwayo in 1879.          He came to visit him to ask her the right to return to KwaZulu-Natal after his forced exile in 1879.

Cetshwayo KaMpande, the last true Monarch of the kingdom of Chaka.

         Son of King Mpande and Queen Ngqumbazi born in 1826 in emlambongwenya near Eshowe in the south-eastern KwaZulu-Natal.          At birth, Chaka, the king of the Zulu is at the height of his power. His father Mpande is the half-brother of Chaka. When Chaka conflicts with Shoshangane, Mpande is sent to the head of a military expedition to fight the troops of the latter. He suffered a crushing defeat.
         In 1828, on the way to retirement, he learned the assassination of Chaka. Afraid of being killed himself, Mpande fled Engakavini which grows Cetshwayo. He succeeded at the head of  Zulu Kingdom. At the age of fifteen years, Cetshwayo became head of the army of his father's troops and defeated Dingaan in 1840. In 1856, he fought and killed his younger brother Mbuyazi, the favorite son of his father. In 1861, his other brother, claiming the power and fled to Umtonga alliance with the Boers.

The accession to the throne and the reorganization of the troops "impis".

         Cetshwayo succeeded to his father Mpande in 1873. He reorganized his army "impis" on the model of his great-uncle Chaka, replacing the spears with muskets. He banished Christian missionaries in his kingdom. He concluded an alliance with the British in Natal established to counter the advance of the Boers. In 1877, when his power is seen as a threat to the Confederation of British South Africa, the British broke the alliance and decided to annex Zululand.

The British destroy the kingdom of Zulu.

         On January 11, 1879, the British invaded Zululand with an army of 18,000 men. Cetshwayo aligned in front of them, an army of 20,000 to 25,000 men less well armed. On January 22, 1879, the Zulu fighters put British troops at Isandlwana in disarray, but they are crushed in Ulundi on July 4 of that year. Cetshwayo was captured alive, imprisoned and then exiled to the Cape. His kingdom was broken up into 13 chiefdoms subject to the British crown.
         In 1883, Cetshwayo with no real power is reinstated as King of Zululand. But he was forced to flee by Zibhebhu Eshowe, one of the thirteen kinglets, supported by Boer mercenaries. He died February 8, 1884, poisoned in Eshowe. Dinizulu his son, aged 15, succeeded him as head of Zululand, totally weakened and subject to British rule May 20, 1884. The empire of the Chaka "Zulu" had lived!

Who is
Goodwill Zwelithini kaBhekuzulu?

         Born July 27, 1948 at Nangoma in Kwazulu-Natal, he completed high school to college leaders Bekezulu. He spent his youth in the royal palace and receives khethomthandayo Zulu traditional education. At the death of his father, King Cyprian, in 1968, a regent ensures the continuity of power while Zwelithini is preparing to succeed him. A heated debate between the government of South Africa in the Zulu royal family on the selection of the Regent. King inducted Dec. 3, 1971 in front of 20,000 people Nangoma, Zwelithini becomes the eighth monarch of the kingdom founded by Chaka Zulu.

Conflict between King Goodwill Zwelithini and Buthelezi Magosothu.

         In 1975, wanting to set up the party "Inala", he was accused by his nephew by marriage, Minister of Justice, Mangosothu Buthelezi to meddle in political affairs in South Africa and of conspiring with the Mozambican government. In 1979, the conflict ended with the restoration of royal rights to Goodwill Zwelithini.
         In 1980, he is forbidden to grant interviews to the press without the presence of Mangosothu Buthelezi. A latent conflict between him and the African National Congress (ANC) led to the non-participation of the Inkatha Freedom Party Mangosothu Buthelezi to the talks of the Convention on the Democratic Republic of South Africa between the last apartheid government and the ANC (and other political parties in South Africa) in May 1992. In July 1992, Zwelithini is guaranteed to have a place in the new South African government of multistakeholder Nelson Mandela.

Prince Charles of Wales, the oldest heir to the crown of England.

        
Queen Elizabeth II ascended the throne 6 April 1952 and his eldest son Charles Philip Arthur George, born November 14, 1948 in London becomes heir presumptive to the throne at the age of 3 years.         
After graduating from Trinity College, Cambridge, and his service in the Royal Navy (1971-1976), he married Lady Diana Spencer in 1981. She gives him two sons, William and Harry. In 1996 the couple divorced. Diana has publicly accused her husband of having an affair with Camilla Parker-Bowles.
         A car accident, right in Paris, never really understood terminates the life of the Princess of Wales in 1997. In 2005, Prince Charles married his mistress Camilla who takes the title of Princess of Cornwall.

The oldest "heir presumptive to the throne of England.

         At 63, he has been waiting 59 years to the throne of England and 23 November 2013, he will be the king older at the time of his accession to the throne if the United Kingdom.
         Contemporary queens of England have the chance to live long. The successor of Queen Victoria (1819-1901), Edward VII (1841-1910) reigned only nine years after he was crown prince of England for 59 years, two months and fourteen days. His mother had reigned for 63 years.
         The accession to the throne is automatic, Charles prevent access if the mother dies or decides to abdicate in his favor.
         According to one survey, 33% of British would support the abdication of Queen Elizabeth II for his grand-son William in which 76% of respondents consider him a better king than his father. 75% believe that Kate Middleton, his wife would be better Queen as Camilla. The Princess of Hearts, Lady Diana Spencer would have his revenge.

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