mercredi 7 décembre 2011

Egypt: When the streets of Cairo rumble in 1952!

 The Grapes of Wrath: endemic poverty in Egypt.

           
In 1900, Egypt has 10 million inhabitants. In 1917, this population passes 12 million and 17 million in 1927. In 1947, she was 19 million. In 2002, she spent 67 million. In the countryside, the density is 540 inhabitants per km2 in the city, it explodes. In 1950, there were 8,000 people per km2 in the rich neighborhoods and 112,000 residents in the neighborhoods.
         The sanitary conditions are deplorable. Egypt has a doctor then 2,000 inhabitants. The poor suffer from endemic diseases such as schistosomiasis, hookworm and tuberculosis. The people are malnourished and poorly housed.
         In 2011, Egypt has 84. 474. 000 inhabitants in an area of ​​1,001,449 km2. Economic development, although it is never followed this impressive population explosion. Add to this illiteracy, corruption is the favorite sport of bourgeois Egyptian.
         January 26, 1952, as the Roman Emperor Nero, Farouk I attended, impassive, the fire of Cairo. Surrounded by six hundred officers, invited to his table, he refused to interrupt the banquet to take action against arsonists. Found any excuse to accuse the administration of neglect and opportunity for government to revoke  Mustafa Nahas Pasha (1879-1965) who had denounced the Anglo-Egyptian Treaty of 1936 and started the guerrilla war against British troops in Suez Canal Zone.

The British army would result in chaos.

         While the treaty between Britain and Egypt signed in 1936 provided for a maximum of only 10,000 soldiers stationed in the area of ​​the Suez Canal, an additional clause in the agreement provided to occupy Egypt in case of tension International. In February 1945, just before the end of the world war, the British army has 80,000 troops in Egypt. Brought against the German army in Libya, Britain had massed his troops in Egypt. The land of the Pharaohs account while only 19 million.

         At the end of the war, the Egyptian obsolete industries are unable to cope with foreign competition. The Egyptian pound is collapsing. The food prices increased by 195%.
         More than 200,000 workers, mainly employed by the British Army are unemployed. Several Egyptian Industries put the key under the door. The strikes follow one another. On April 2, 1946, in the city of Alexandria police officers support the strikers and decreed the cessation of work. In the countryside, peasants seized land belonging to members of the royal family, the Communists extended their influence in urban areas.
         The starving people the opportunity to freely plunder the cities. Driven by the "Muslim Brotherhood", it calls for higher wages, better social protection and the departure of British troops stationed in the Suez Canal.
         The role of King Farouk I in the Middle East complicates the situation. Indeed, 15 May 1948, he sent his Prime Minister Mahmoud Fahmi El-Nokrashi Pasha and General Muhammad Naguib (1901-1984) and his troops in the conquest of Palestine along with other Arab armies. We had to abort the birth of the State of Israel proclaimed the day before!
         Stinging defeat is fast because the Egyptian arms purchased at a discount to intermediaries by the close of the king against the big commissions are flawed. Machine guns and rifles jammed, while grenades jumped in his hands. The armistice signed with Israel February 24, 1949 is a real humiliation. In this blitz in October 1948 in Falluja in the Negev desert (near Gaza), a hero comes out covered with glory: the "Lieutenant Colonel Nasser or" Gamal Abdel Nasser (1918-1970).

The Muslim Brotherhood (al-Ikhwan al Djam'iyyat-Muslimun).

         Founded in 1928 by the teacher Ismailia Husafiyya member of the Brotherhood, Hasan al-Banna ibn Ahmad, the politico-religious fundamentalist Muslim Brotherhood (al-Ikhwan al djam'iyyat-Muslimun) claims to be the faith of the ancestors or salaf. For Hasan al-Banna: "Islam is dogma and worship, country and nationality, religion and state, spirituality and action, Koran and sword."
         The dream of the Salafis is the establishment of a society and a state advocated by Muhammad ibn al-Wahhab Ibn'Abd (1703-1792) to convert the world to Islam by the sword as time in the middle of Medina the seventh century.
         Officially dissolved by the Prime Minister Mahmoud Fahmi El-Nokrashi December 6, 1948, the movement that has 2 million members (divided into 300 cells) becomes more dangerous underground. To its credit, the assassination of Prime Minister Mahmud Fahmi El-Nokrashi Pasha (1888-1948). In return, Hasan Al-Banna who has the title of "Murshid has the soul and General Guide" was murdered at age 43, February 12, 1949, but his ideas are expanding rapidly. They will now spearhead of the Islamist opposition to power in Egypt and the Arab world to lead to the founding of al-Qaida.
         From 1942 to 1944, the Brothers muslims collaborate with the party Wafd (Delegation), while in office and request revision of the Anglo-Egyptian agreement. The successor of Hasan al-Banna, the poet and writer Sayyid Qutb (1906-1966) became the ideologue of the Muslim Brotherhood and resumed his speech with greater virulence, "The banner of Islam to cover the human race and each Muslim's mission is to educate the world on the principles of Islam. "
         He was hanged August 29, 1966, in fact a martyr and leads to the birth of "Al-Qaeda (The Base)" founded by the Saudi Osama bin Laden (1957) and led since 1998 by the Egyptian surgeon Ayman al-Zawahiri (1951 ).

The Movement of Free Officers "Dohbat el-Ahrar"

         The humiliation of defeat against Israel brought Gamal Abdel Nasser, Mohammed Naguib and Anwar Sadat plus some others to form the Free Officers Movement. In December 1949, they are known for leaflet signed "The Voice of Free Officers,"
which calls for the release of Egypt, the reorganization of the army and a radical reform of the regime. On July 22, 1952, Gamal Abdel Nasser became head of the group of Free Officers.
         This movement brings together 250 troops recruited in all bodies of the Egyptian Armed Forces, grouped cells topped by an executive council composed of twelve officers, Abdel Hakim Amer (1919-1967), Gamal Salem (1918-1968), Salah Salem ( 1920-1962), Khaled Mohieddin (1922), Zakaria Mohieddin (1918), Abdel Latif Boghdadi (1917-1999), Ibrahim Hasan, Hussein el Shafei (1918-2005), Saddiq Youssef Kamal Eddin Hussein (1921), Abdel Moneim Amine (1912-1996) and Anwar Sadat (1918-1981). In June 1953, the movement fomented a coup that overthrew King Farouk I and to the head of the Directing Council of the Revolution, General Muhammad Naguib proclaiming the Republic.

Farouk I, King Playboy! Last ruler of the dynasty of Muhammad Ali.


         Son of Ahmed Fouad I and Queen Nazli, great-granddaughter of French Joseph Anthelme Sève, Soliman Pasha, born February 11, 1920, he was educated at a private international school Le Rosey in Rolle, Switzerland,  reserved for crowned heads. He continues his studies at the Royal Military Academy at Woolwich in the UK before succeeding his father April 28, 1936. Until his majority, the regency is provided by a council of regency formed of Prince Mohammad Ali, Aziz Ezzat Pasha and Sheriff Sabry Pasha. He ascended the throne officially July 26, 1937. He leads a lavish lifestyle. During his many trips to Europe, he empties the luxury boutiques of angering his subjects.
         On January 20, 1938, he married Farida Safinaz Zulficar (1921-1988), met in Switzerland. This marriage celebrated at the Palais Royal Koudeh is so lavish for the time that marked the Egyptians. Even the pickpockets Cairo had given up their activities on that day to celebrate. She gives him three daughters Fariala (1938-1988), Fawzia (1940-2005) and Fadia (1943-2002). In 1948, the divorce is granted because Farida did not give an heir to the crown. In 1951, he married Farouk Sadek Narima (1934-2005), which finally gives a potential successor: Fouad II.
         But the same year, King Playboy seems to have married an Italian opera singer named Irma Capece Minutolo, who was then 16 years old who could not prove the absence of subsequent marriage.
         The king made the headlines worldly. Ousted July 23, 1952, he is allowed to board in Alexandria aboard his luxury yacht, the "Al-Mahroussa" bound for Naples, Italy. Stripped of his Egyptian nationality in 1958, he has no problem acquiring the passport of the Principality of Monaco where he has a comfortable nest egg. Before his ouster, his wife Narima Sadek (1934-2005) falls in love with the
Syrian singer and actor Farid El-Atrash (1915-1974). After the overthrow of her husband, she returned to Cairo where she saw a turbulent love affair with him. Scandal to scandal, the first short Farouk pretty women and squandered his fortune in the casinos of Monaco.
         The Egyptian state pays $ 400,000 a year to him and he has a personal fortune estimated at one hundred million dollars of the time placed in Switzerland, the United States, Canada and Mexico.
         Moreover, he is so greedy that it is table in a French restaurant, "The Island of Rome" in Rome, along with the blonde Anna Maria Gatti (28) he is struck down by a heart attack at 1:30 am April 18, 1965. He was only 45 years and one month and weighed 138 kg!

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