dimanche 11 décembre 2011

South-Sudan: Long live the Democratic Republic of Garang!

 On July 9, 2011, a new African state will be born in southern Sudan. It has a flag, anthem, etc.. but has not been named yet.
Why not just call the "Democratic Republic of Garang," a tribute to John Garang de Mabior, his hero history?

The extraordinary destiny of John Garang de Mabior.

         Born June 23, 1945 at Wagkulei in Dinka country, in the province of Jonglei, he lost his father at age of nine and her mother at eleven.
He is ten years old when Sudan became independent on 1 January 1956. Southern Sudan, his home region is already plagued by rebellion "Anyanya (snake venom)," Blacks and Christians who are fighting against the Arabized Muslim northerners, favored by the colonizer. After high school to college in Rumbek and the College of Lushoto in Tanzania (1964), he has a scholarship that allowed him to continue his studies in the United States to escape the recruitment of Anyanya Liberation Front, the young John Garang fled to Tanzania to complete his secondary education at the College of Lushoto in Dar es Salaam in 1964.
         He makes a brief stint at the University of Dar es Salaam before obtaining a scholarship that allows first at Grinnell College and the University of Science and Technology Weapons in Iowa.
Back in Tanzania, with a degree in economics, he became a research associate in the Department of Economics and Rural Economy at the University of Dar es Salaam. There he met Yoweri Kaguta Museveni, President-elect of Uganda and Eduardo Mondlane, the founder of the Front for the Liberation of Mozambique (FRELIMO).
In 1971, he left his position as researcher and agrees Anyanya Liberation Front in the bush of southern Sudan under the command of Joseph Lagu.
In 1972, the rebels signed a peace agreement in Addis Ababa with the dictator Gaafar El-Nimeiry (1930-2009). The rebel soldiers are incorporated into the ranks of the Sudanese National Army. The same year he was promoted to Warrant Officer. He is used respectively in the province of Upper Nile, Bahr-el Ghazal, in Torit Garrison before being assigned to the Military College of Sudan as an instructor of infantry.
         Promoted to captain and then colonel and received officer training at Fort Benning military base southwest of Columbus, Georgia (United States). In 1981, he took advantage of his stay in the United States for a doctorate in agricultural economics at the University of Iowa.

The People's Liberation Movement Sudan.

Back home in 1981, he found a Sudan under "Sharia" by Gaafar El-Nimery, supported by Muslim fundamentalists. He became a professor at the University and the Military Academy in Khartoum. In May 1983, five hundred soldiers of the 105th Infantry Battalion stationed in Bor, under the command of Kerubino Kwanin Bol, refuse their allocation in the Muslim north. Responsible for bringing the mutineers to reason, John Garang becomes their leader and founded the People's Liberation Movement Sudan (SPLM) and its armed wing: the People's Liberation Army in Sudan (SPLA). Its main objective is to obtain the formation of a secular government without discrimination and the right to self-determination of South Sudan (Dinka, Nuer, Nubian, Shillouk ...).
Three years later, the armed wing of the SPLM has 12,500 troops organized into 12 battalions equiped with light weapons and light mortars. In the early nineties, his army had over 50,000 men.
At first, it is supported by the Ethiopian Mengistu Haile Mariam who hates Marshal Gaafar El-Nimeiry, and Mo'ammar Gaddafi the Libyan and finally by his former colleague at the University of Dar es Salaam, Yoweri Museveni at his accession to the power in Uganda in 1986.

The dissent's liberation movement.

In May 1991, having lost its bases in Ethiopia with the fall of Mengistu Haile Maryam, the SPLA is divided into three wings with the dissent of two lieutenants: Riak Machar and Lam Akol.
         The ruling military junta in Khartoum since 1989 the opportunity to conduct a large offensive against the troops of MPLS and pushes towards Uganda and Kenya. Garang refuses the offer of President Omar al-Bashir to be part of his government.
Between 1989 and 1995, government troops step up the war. The positions of M.P.L.S. deteriorate and famine decimated the population of the South. The assistance of the Sudanese government to Saudi terrorist, Osama bin Laden pushes the U.S. to support the MPLS under cover of humanitarian aid.
In April 1996, certain factions sign a peace agreement with Khartoum. In January 2002, the largest armed faction, led by Riak Machar is reconciled with the SPLM John Garang.
On April 27, 2003, under the aegis of the United States, the People's Liberation Movement signed with Sudan President Omar Hassan al-Bashir, the peace agreements in Machakos (Kenya) providing six years of transition before the referendum of self-determination for southern Sudan.
The agreement was ratified in May 2004 and permanently sealed in December 2004, when the Darfur region is in turn the war against the Khartoum regime. On July 9, 2005, he became vice-president Sudanization. On July 31, 2005, back from Kampala, he died in a helicopter crash in southern Sudan. Since the announcement of his death, riots are 40 dead in Khartoum. He was immediately replaced as Vice-President of the Republic by President Salva Kiir,  SPLM and Commander in Chief of SPLA

The man, the intellectual and the guerrilla.

Buddha face, laughing eyes and broken, balding, bearded white hairs pricked, John Garang had two daughters and two sons with his wife Rebecca. His family lived in a posh villa Nairobi. He traveled a lot of capital to another. From Nairobi to the hills. Of fronts to fronts. When he left his khaki fatigues, he loved the colorful African shirts. And the suit and tie for the ceremonies.
In his headquarters in Rumbek, he received visitors and journalists, a 9mm in his belt and an AK-47 rifle at hand, surrounded by young recruits of the Dinka tribe.

         History buff, when the weather allows it, he read and reread military strategies: the Prussian Carl von Clausewitz (1780-1831), Chinese President Mao Tsé-Toung (1893-1976) and The Art of War of Sun Tzu (544-496 BC.). He admired the French emperor Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821), French President Charles De Gaulle (1890-1970) and the British Field Marshal Bernard Law Montgomery (1887-1976).
Writer in his spare time, he has written: Sudan at the dawn of peace, Fight of John Garang, published by L'Harmattan in Paris in 2005.
He was charismatic, ambitious, incorruptible, uncompromising and sometimes cruel. Leader, he could not stand or dissension, or the questioning of the hierarchy.
This is the intransigence of the great resistance fighter that led to the signing of the Peace Agreement of 9 January 2005 and January 2011 referendum providing access to the independence of the new state should logically bear his name.
The independence of Southern Sudan for which he sacrificed his life, certainly opens the way for dismantling other borders imposed by European colonization African States! For better or for worse!

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