jeudi 5 janvier 2012

Madagascar: Is this the real end of the kingdom of Imerina or recovery by the new power?

 
The theft of the jewels of Queen Ranavalona.

         On the night of Saturday 3 to 4 December 2011, the crown of Queen Ranavalona 1st was stolen from the palace of the late Prime Minister of Queen at Andafiavaratra with other elements such as ceremonial royal cane or the Bible of Queen, after the burning of the Palace of the Queen in November 1996.
         The director of the Heritage of the Ministry of Culture and Heritage, Emeline Raharimanana, said it is a gilt crown, that is to say, the silver covered in gold, seven spearheads, coupled with velvet red garnet. The seven spearheads were symbols of power of the Queen Ranavalona who ruled the kingdom of Madagascar from 1828 to 1861. There are also other decorations around the crown. These decorations are adorned with precious stones.
         According to General Richard Ravalomanana, head of the constituency of the national police of Antananarivo who spoke yesterday at a press conference, a survey was entrusted to the Crime Squad.
         At the same time, the officer said that a bonus will be offered to the person who will find the information or to regain the crown.
$ 10 million ariary (about 35,000 euros) will be offered to anyone who will provide reliable information about the flight.
         This gem is of little financial value, but it has great symbolic value for the faithful of the monarchy.

They remain rather mysterious about their activities and their ambitions.

         But this December 29, 2011, if the ceremony took place in the precincts of the palace of the Queen was not public, and if the rite of purification was performed by direct descendants of seven queens of the nineteenth century, they still warned the press to alert the sacrilege which they feel victims.
         The theft of the crown of Ranavalona is obviously a strong symbol, like, a few years ago, moving secretly royal bones. Otherwise, their speech is prudent. To avoid an ethnic interpretation, they point out that the heirs of the kingdoms of the province came to the capital for the occasion.
         And while some argue for a return of the monarchy, the majority said that the problem is not the Republic of Madagascar, but the governance since independence, did not sound development of the country.
         We know the economic and political importance of the great families Malagasy, but what may be the weight of the most direct descendants of the monarchy?

President Andry Rajoelina, reincarnation of Radama II?

         According to the Courrier de Madagascar, "the attitude of the transitional authorities in Madagascar to respect the historical heritage arouses some suspicion see a repudiation."
         "What shocked Antananarivo, was the attempt by the Chair of the Transition and the Minister of Culture will celebrate the first anniversary of the 4th Republic of the Rova Manjakamiadana, while it has not elucidated the flight and that the injuries caused are not yet healed. The deliberate silence of President Rajoelina on this case stunned the aristocratic Malagasy or fishing there out of ignorance of history would have forgotten that the heads of state have fallen from the mpimasy [ became] to have violated the royal rituals of our sovereign? "

         In addition, "many wonder about the attitude of the President of the Transition Andry Rajoelina, who came down from the palace of a princely costume Manjakamiadana (almost identical to that of the first Radama) to join the Independence Avenue to open the Town Hall after the promulgation of the Constitution of the Fourth Republic in Iavoloha palace. "

         The “Courrier de Madagascar” analyzes the significant impact of these injuries: "The flight of the royal crown, as the arson of the Palace of Manjakamiadana of November 6, 1995, is a political act that aims not only to divide and conquer but also an attempt to erase the collective memory as a symbol of pride and national sovereignty and a sign of victory against foreign invasions. You can not erase a line period in the history of Madagascar. "

The hypothesis of a political connotation behind that flight can not be excluded: "The theft of the jewels of royalty given rise to suspicions among ethnic groups. Some say it was perhaps an operation against the past and the identity of this "tribe" currently in power, in order of handicap. Recall that the palace of Queen flared the day after the vote that led to the mayor of Antananarivo Guy Razanamasy. It was perhaps put a stop to the rise of the latter, a member of the Merina nobility "

Ranavalona Ramavo Ist, a reign of 33 years on the throne of Imerina.

         Rabodonandriantompo natural daughter, born in 1788 in Antananarivo. It was adopted by his aunt Ralesoka who has no children. To mark his royal descent, was nicknamed "Rabodonandrianampoinimerina”, that is to say, the beloved Daughter of Andrianampoinimerina.
         She is educated by the care of the missionary Jones, founder of the first Protestant mission in the larger island and adviser to her husband Radama I. Her maiden name, Ramavo, first wife of Radama I (died at age 36), she is designated Queen of Madagascar by the army and the nobility on 1 August 1828 and formally inducted into the place of Andahalo June 12 1929.
         She took the dynastic name of Ranavalona Ist and eliminates the other pretenders to the throne, the young prince Rakotobe and his father, Prince Ratefy, princes Ratefinanahary, Ratafika, and Ramananolona Rafaralahy, and his stepmother, Rambolamasoandro. Ramanetaka only escaped death by fleeing to the Comoros Islands.
         She reserves her late husband, Radama, a grand funeral and he built a tomb by the French Gros Louis to Antananarivo. She guards surrounded idols Malagasy, the ombiasy. She collects lovers among them she chose in September 1830, his "Mpitaiza andriana" (one who takes care of the queen), Rainiharo as all-powerful prime minister.          Their collaboration lasted fifteen years. Gifted with a strong personality, she loves pleasures, violent entertainment, hunting wild zebus, spa treatments and pleasure trips. She is obsessed with the idea of ​​Madagascar fall under the influence of foreigners.

Europeans mix of Malagasy politics.

         On November 28, 1828, she ends the cooperation (agreements dealing) with the Europeans (British and French) it suspects to be hands on his kingdom. She takes into slavery on French Pinson, suspected of trying to colonize the island of Madagascar. The French bought and August 1829, the commander Gourbeyre and six men are Tintingue and Tamatave, but bogged down in spite of the reinforcements Foulpointe Senegalese infantrymen.
         Her army-dominated Hovas conquers the southern Menabe Boina. She pushes the French colonial army which had landed at Tamatave in 1829 and the British fleet in 1845. Despite her hostility to the hegemony of Europeans, she give her son Rakoto (born 1829), a British education.
         She enlists the help of some Europeans attached to his service with Lastelle Napoleon (1802-1856), a European based in Tamatave creating plantations of sugar, a sugar mill, a distillery, and establishes many counters import- export on the east coast and a great French adventurer named Jean-Baptiste Laborde (1805-1878), an ingenious castaway adventure, collected at Fort Dauphin in 1832 by De Lastelle who builds a factory rifles and cartridges for Queen, a mini industrial complex Mantasoa, aqueducts, a cement factory, a tile, a brick, a pottery, a soap factory, an agricultural experimental garden carts with introduction and merino sheep.
         He built for Ranavalona Ist at the cost of considerable work, the first wooden palace of Manjakamiadana. She tells Lastelle From the collection of customs duties in Fener, and Mahanoro Mananjary and he purchases in Europe. The crisis of 1845 ruined the business of De Lastelle.

Her anticlericalism led to the martyrdom of Christians.

         Despite his illiteracy, she is allowed to develop schools with 2300 students in 1828 and 5000 in 1832. It addresses the influence of Christian missionaries, some of which are martyred (rushing, hoarse in a mat from the top of the cliff bordering the Rova).
         On February 26, 1835, she drives all European missionaries and ask all Malagasy to return to ancestral customs (including the terrible ordeal of the poisoned fruit, the ordeal of tanquin-) under the threat of death for those who do not obey his ukase.
On 1 March 1835, she proclaims:
"I will not pray the ancestors of Europeans, but God and my ancestors. Thanks to this custom that the twelve kings ruled and I reigned myself. Your own ancestors complied with this custom. Anyone who practice the new religion, I will put to death, O people, because I am the heir of the twelve kings. "
         Christians who do not go into exile in Mauritius and England were burned alive, reduced to slaves or imprisoned. In 1836, she tried in vain to sign new trade agreements with France and England.

A real genocide.

         The martyrdom of Rasalama in 1837 remains the most memorable episode, but in 1849 and in 1857 the martyrdom of Christians reached its peak.
         In domestic policy, she attempts to pacify the independent territories of the south and west. From 1829 to 1835, she unsuccessfully invaded the territory of Talas (Ikongo), the country Bara, and Masikoro Androy.
         To the west, and the Ambongo Menabe fifty resist attempts to annex while the Sakalava helped by the French occupied the islands of the west where they hoisted the French flag on Noisy-Be in 1941.          Prime minister who went Andriamihaja unpopular with the nobility and the people suffered the ordeal of poison (tangential) and died in 1835. The death of his prime minister (the mpitaiza Andriana) Rainiharo in 1852 affected him deeply. She became embittered and more superstitious.
         Rakotoseheno, her son tries to approach the French Lambert whose charter (with his name) was signed June 23, 1855. The French Emperor Napoleon III, who does not want to alienate London, yet refuses to grant the protectorate.
         A plot by the French and pro-Western is narrowly avoided June 20, 1857. She took the opportunity to drive all the French even his friend Jean Laborde (exiled in 1857 on Reunion Island until his return in 1861) and to persecute Christians.
         She died at seventy-five years August 16, 1861 after appointing her son, Prince Rakotoseheno, enthroned under the dynastic name of Radama II (1829-1863) as his successor. She had reigned thirty-three years of the empire Imerina.
         After Radama II, three queens ruled the kingdom of Imerina. Queen Rasoherina (1814-1869), his wife, Princess Ramoma, niece of Ranavalona Ist who took the name of the reign of Ranavalona II (1829-1883) and her cousin, Princess Razafindrahety, crowned as the Ranavalona III ( 1861 to 1917).

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