vendredi 20 janvier 2012

Canada: The Mi’kmaq and their Pow Wow on the borders of the Anglophonie and Francophonie.


Have you asked where the boundary of  your language?

        
Language is like a territory, it shares borders beyond which it is no longer spoken. Even barriers beyond which, the one who speaks is the enemy.
        
In some countries, especially former colonies, the territorial boundary often corresponds to the boundary of a language.
In multilingual countries, the language barrier may divide into two the same region or province.
        
And Switzerland, as there are cantons Fribourg, Valais, Jura or cut in half by the French and Swiss German. But both coexist perfectly.
        
In Belgium against the Flemish and French are the antagonists and the people who speak one or the other are in conflict despite ongoing political school, which strives to teach both languages ​​and the marriage between the Flemish and Walloons. While the German language spoken by a small minority of the Belgians has never registered the conflict nor the Flemish nor the Flemish.
        
And a minority language can be without being in conflict with the minority language. This is the case of French and German in Italy where Italian speakers do not even know we speak German and French in some parts of Italy.
         This is the case of Valle d'Aosta where they speak only French. In Canada, the fear of the English made the French, a language in perpetual rebellion. The two languages ​​are imposed in violation of local languages ​​and cultures.

The "Gîte du Maudit Français (The cursed French)", the Mi’kmaq and Pow Wow.

        
When the Ardéchois Serge and Angelique bought the "curse of the French Country" at Pierreville in Quebec in 2006, they probably knew the history of the region. An old Indian reservation which will soon resume its autonomy when the "Nations first" stand out clearly from Canada.
         Among the Indian people is one which is called "Micmacs" is no longer composed of only three communities (Listuguj, Gesgapegiag and Gespeg) comprising 4,000 people from the Algonquian peoples (10,000 people in the sixteenth century).
        
These people live in the Gaspé Peninsula in Quebec. In the seventeenth century, the British called them "Tarrantins." Living only in the reserves, their name means "People of the Sea." They lived in the beginning, the Maritime Provinces of Canada: Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and the Gaspé Peninsula in Quebec. Advanced nations, they even invented 200 years ago.
        
Like most other Indian nations of the forests of north-east of the Mi'kmaq culture has more or less adapted after the arrival of Europeans, both by the influence of missionaries, as the development of trade in hides or tensions arising from the Anglo-French conflict.
        
Their original languages ​​have been supplanted by the French and English spoken by their children today. Hello, is written in Mi’kmaq "Gwé" and pronounced "Goué."
        
Their schools are similar to other schools in Quebec, the only difference being that the culture is given in Mi’kmaq, their native language by parents and grandparents invited by the school. Young people take the opportunity to learn Micmac also Mi'kmaq crafts, clothing and snow boots, sleds and toboggans.
        
In August of each year, the Mi'kmaq organize a big party called "POW WOW". The festival begins with a parade of brightly-colored traditional elders held. Follow the drummers. The evening ends around a bonfire where they tell stories punctuated songs and dances.
The Pow Wow, religious holiday originally to celebrate the military exploits, it was organized around the Pouwowin.
        
The Pouwowin, fashioning a sorcerer spells and potions, is far more disturbing. Offspring of a legendary seventeenth-century shaman named Bohinne, he is always afraid of some Native Americans. Like the sorcerer of myth, the modern Pouwowin is able to predict the future, walk on water and protect individuals and communities Hex.
        
There are also a host of beliefs about the powers of Pouwowin: and they say it is capable of casting a spell to a person very far away, like to unleash on her illness, accident or misfortune. One can discern in many European contributions Pouwowin tales, but always arranged in the traditional way.

Far from the "Black Micmacs," the novel and film Bankara Felix Thomas Gilou.

        
The Mi’kmaq were probably with the Beothuk, the first native North American contact with Europeans. The first description of this people is due to Giovanni Caboto or John Cabot (1450-1498) who brought three Mi'kmaq in 1497 in England. Beginning in 1501, the Mi'kmaq kept up regular contact not only with the English, but also with the Spanish fishermen, French and Irish who came to touch the shores of Nova Scotia each summer.
        
When the explorer Jacques Cartier (1491-1557) arrived in Chaleur Bay, the ship is quickly surrounded by a multitude of Mi'kmaq canoes whose occupants waved beaver pelts.
        
Over the years, the Mi’kmaq were decimated by an epidemic. In 1620, their estimated population of 10,000 people went to about 4,000 survivors. Over the next 150 years, the Mi’kmaqmac took part in a series of wars between France and England, in which they systematically took the side of France.
        
The word "Mi’kmaq" translated into English by "underhand intrigue and Scheming" and in French means “disorder, scheming, scheming, secret "whose purpose is wrong. He then took up the pejorative invisible borders of the French language which is "the curse of French Country."

From " Maudit Français (Cursed French)" to " Mots dit français (so-called French words) *"

        
The deep origin of "Maudit Français (damned French)" comes from the sense of loss felt at the loss felt by the people of Quebec after the French defeat at the siege of Quebec in 1759 and the loss of Canada. It reflects the unease in relations between Quebecers, rustic and friendly and the arrogant French, who claims to know everything.
        
Besides, we still do not know if the name "Quebec" or "Quebecq" meaning "narrowing of the waters" is Native American or French. And it is the village of Stadacona, the residence of the Indian chief Donnacona, that the  French Jacques Cartier called "Canada" distortion of the word "Kanata" in Iroquois, meaning "village or town" that is built in Quebec City. It was in 1535.
          The name "Canada" was officially used for the first time in 1791 when the province of Quebec was divided into two colonies of Upper Canada and Lower Canada.
        
In 1841, the two Canadas were again united as the Province of Canada. At the time of Confederation, the new country assumed the name of Canada. Mot dit français (So-called french word)  !
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* Song of Erwan Séguillon said R. Wan, singer and songwriter of the group Java.

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