lundi 9 janvier 2012

South Africa: The African National Congress (ANC), the oldest liberation movement politics of the world.

 
The African National Congress (ANC) to power in South Africa since 1994, celebrates its centenary in style at three days of self-celebration tightly controlled by President Jacob Zuma.
        
"We are the oldest organization on the continent (Africa). Many organizations were created, were born, have emerged and died, died, collapsed. Not  ANC", said Mr Zuma.
        
"Three of the four heads of state that have taken place since the advent of democracy have spent at least ten years of their lives in prison. Nelson Mandela, President from 1994 to 1999, spent 27 years. Kgalema Motlanthe (2008-2009) and Jacob Zuma, the current head of state, stayed 10 years in prison for apartheid. The only exception, Thabo Mbeki (1999-2008), which for its part had 28 years of exile "says Jeune Afrique.
        
Except icon Nelson Mandela, whose career achievement is unique in the annals of the party and South Africa, two figures have forever marked the founding of the ANC: The founder of the party and the composer of the most beautiful anthem of Africa, “Nkosi Sikelel'i Afrika (God Bless Africa)”.

The real founder of the ANC: Josiah Gumede Tshangana-Mgqogqoza.

        
Born in 1870 in KwaZulu Natal. After graduating from Grahamstown to Cape Town, he taught for a while in Somerset East Cape before becoming a Council of Traditional Leaders blacks in Natal and the Orange Free State.
        
In 1899, he met Saul Msane (1856-1832) and Emily Harriette Colenso (1847-1913) to study the feasibility of establishing an Aboriginal political organization in South Africa.
        
In 1900, in collaboration with Martin Luthuli (brother of John Luthuli) and Saul Msane (1856-1930), they founded the Natal Native Congress (SANNC) of which he served for many years the General Secretariat.
        
In 1906, he represents the Heads of Basutho Kholokoe (or Kxolokwe Ruluku) in the delegation of Africans who went to London to discuss the land laws of the Orange Free State.
         For leaving the Orange Free State without a pass, he was sentenced on his return "for insubordination" to three months in prison and a fine of £ 10.
        
In 1907, with Z. Mr. Mazuku, he signed the founding of "Iliso Lesiwe Esimnyama (The eye of the Black Nation)", a converted Methodist organization and traditional leaders of Dundee and Newcastle in Natal.
        
In 1911, the newly created Union of South Africa uniting British colonies and independent states into a single entity Afrikaner policy to serve the interests of whites and mining groups, mostly at the expense of millions of "Coloured people,": Black, Metis Indians.
        
On January 8, 1912, he was a founding member of the National Congress of the natives of South Africa (SANNC) which will become in 1923 the African National Congress (ANC).
        
In a small church in Bloemfontein ("the fountain of flowers" in Afrikans), renamed Mangaung (“the place of Cheetahs”), the third capital of South Africa (head of the judiciary), has been founded.
          In 1912, the movement that would come to power more than eight decades later, with Nelson Mandela, former " most famous political prisoner of the world's " first black President of South Africa.          It was at Bloemfontein (Mangaung), that were organized the first annual conference of the ANC and where certain broad guidelines were decided, until the organization was banned in 1960.
        
In 1919, he was part of the delegation who files a petition to the British Government in London against the declaration of the Union of South Africa. The same year he attended the Peace Conference in Versailles, France.
        
In 1921 he was appointed general organizer of the Native National Congress of South Africa (SANNC).
        
In 1927, he attended along with communist Justin La Guma the First Congress anti-colonialist and anti-imperialism of Brussels. It rubs the leaders of the Third World such as Jawaharlal Nehru (1889-1964), leaders of South America and black American like WEB Du Bois (1868-1963) and other Africans.
        
After the congress, he traveled to Germany where he was received by members of the German Communist Party. He then traveled to Tiblisi in Georgia (USSR) and then to Moscow to attend the second anniversary of the "October Revolution".
        
Upon his return, he preached the union of all black nationalist common and uncommon. He went to Lesotho (then Basutoland) and attends the meeting of the “lekhothla Bafo (League Common Man)” directed by Maphutseng Lefel (1895 -?). He was elected President General of the League.
        
In 1927 he was elected president of the African National Congress (ANC), South African branch of the Anti-Imperialist League and the League for the rights of Africans. Alongside his political activities, he edited the newspaper "Ilanga lase Natal" and becomes the owner of "Abantu Batho," the news medium of the ANC.
        
In 1930, he resigned from the chairmanship of the African National Congress (ANC). He was replaced as head of the African National Congress (ANC) by Pixley ka Isaka Seme (1881-1951).
         He leads the League of African Rights until his death in 1947.
Married to Lillian Mgqogqoza, the couple had a daughter and a son, Archibald Gumede, (1914-1998) counsel for the ANC at the trial of treason.

The composer of Nkosi Sikelel'i Afrika (God Bless Africa): Enoch Sontonga Mankanyi.

        
Born in 1873 in Uitenhage in the Eastern Cape. He studied education at Lovedale and the Methodist Mission Nancefield, near Johannesburg. He married the daughter of a prominent pastor of the Methodist Church who died in 1929. He worked as choir director and then as a photographer.
        
Most of his songs are sad and show the suffering of blacks in Johannesburg but they were popular. In 1897 he composed "Nkosi Sikelel'Afrika (God Bless Africa)," sung for the first time in public in 1899 at the ordination of Rev. Bowen, a Methodist minister.
        
On January 8, 1912, it is sung at the end of the first founding congress of the ANC. Later the poet Samuel Edward Kruna Mqhayi (1875-1945) added seven paragraphs in Xhosa. The writer Solomon Plaatje (1876-1932), member of the ANC registered the song in London October 16, 1923.
        
From 1925 to 1994 he became the anthem of the African National Congress (ANC). It was also sung in Namibia, Zambia. This is the national anthem of Tanzania in Swahili version "Mungu abariki Afrika." It was the national anthem of Zimbabwe Ndebele version "Ishwe Komborera Africa" ​​before being replaced in 1994 by "Kalibusiswe Ilizwe leZimbabwe," written by Professor Soloman Mutswairo and composed by Fred Changundega.
        
Sontonga died in anonymity in Braamfontein (Mangaung) April 18, 1905. His grave in the cemetery of Braamfontein, near Johannesburg in the 1990s was declared a National Monument September 24, 1996 (Heritage Day).
        
The monument was unveiled by President Nelson Mandela. On this occasion, Sontonga was awarded the Order of Merit of South Africa posthumously (received by his granddaughter Ida Rabotape).
"Nkosi Sikelei i Afrika" and "Die van Suid-Afrika Stern (the voice of South Africa)," the old Afrikaner anthem composed in 1918 by Cornelis Jacob Langenhoven (1873-1932) became the two national anthems of South Africa before a combined version is developed in 1996.
Two songs long enemies become one anthem: “the miracle of South Africa”.

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