mercredi 23 mai 2012

Burundi: Does Burundi needs his dead kings to live in peace?

To die in exile: a great misfortune for a Murundi.

The mother of Captain Michel Micombero overthrown in 1976 by Colonel Bagaza and died in exile in Mogadishu July 16, 1983 and whose body was brought back to Burundi, decided to visit that of his successor who had been overthrown by Colonel Pierre Buyoya and in exile in Libya.
After customarily greeting, she adds with a consoling voice: "Do not worry about your son, dear friend, he will return one day. Mine also return home too!"
Bagaza is not only returned from exile quietly, but in addition he was a candidate for president in 2010.
One of the jokes that are told Burundian around a "Primus" of Brarudi drinks in a flow of Bujumbura.
No matter when or in what condition we returned from exile, a Murundi can’t feel happy outside Burundi.
A fortiori, the King of Burundi, died of grief in Meyrin, a suburb of Geneva. But first of all it’s important to return freely!

The first political refugee from Burundi in Switzerland: Mwambutsa IV.

His reign name is "Mwambutsa" derived from the Kirundi word "Kwambutsa" which means "kurenganya icambu", literally "pass the ford." What is different from "kwambuka", meaning "exile." A mwami of Burundi, like Rwanda, which was struck by the inability to rule was "to hand" that is to say, in veiled terms "to end his days."
         This was the rite of "Regicide". In Burundi, he swallowed the poisoned mead.
But the dynastic name of Bami "Mwambutsa" were not subjected to this terrible ordeal and ultimate.
Instead, tradition gave them the right to break the ban across the river Nyabuyongwe and continue to live "free reign" in northern Burundi, that is to say abroad. It was said then that the mwami had "crossed the ford of Nyabuyongwe".
Mwambutsa IV Bangiricenge "Rubangisha" was therefore understood that his departure to Switzerland for medical treatment, was his last journey to exile!
         The assassination attempt in which he had narrowly escaped during the failed coup of October 19, 1965, had a profound impact. Besides, in anticipation of this final departure, he had bought a large apartment in the chic of Florissant in Geneva.
         A city he admired ... On the shores of Lake Geneva, he felt almost like Kavinvira, on Lake Tanganyika where he could watch the lights of Bujumbura.
Barundi have kept him the image of a good king, tactician and man about town but attached to his people, and especially who has skillfully negotiate the accession of his kingdom, international sovereignty.

Mwami free of  spirit and faith.

Before dying, the Mwami Mwambutsa Bangiricenge (he had renounced baptism in contrast to his neighbor of Rwanda, Mutara III Rudahigwa), he told the Swiss press 8 December 1966:
"I think the current regime of Burundi, based on a superficial authority is suspended in a condemned to disappear. The removal of Ntare V does not surprise me. This dismissal is the logical culmination of the program of introduction of a republican regime - the Tutsi sauce - a few adventurers and power-hungry extremists were assigned, based particularly on the myth of the Uprona party, ethnically divided, politically non-existent and only a small part of the army ".

After the father's long reign, the shortest reign in the history of Burundi.

The search for remains of the body of the last Mwami Burundi, Ntare V, Charles Ndizeye, began in April 2012 in the town of Tankoma, near Gitega. The research is supervised by two professors of Belgian Leuven University including Professor Jean-Jacques Cassiman, an expert in DNA research.
The team includes members of the Belgian Federal Police and the Police of Burundi. Reportedly, the king was buried about one meter. It was an April 29, 1972. April 29, 2012, Burundi is preparing to bury their last king if his remains are found.
"You must go to ask Arthémon Simbananiye, he alone knows where is the body," says an old Murundi of the area.
In 1972, the young king's death (19 years) had been the cause of the genocide that killed 1/5 of the Burundian population in a few months.
The nightmarish end of the last Ganwa king of Burundi began with his naive ambition to replace his father in exile in Geneva
On July 8, 1966, led by Captain Michel Micombero (Hima) and Arthémon Simbananiye (Abasapfu clan, became Hima Tutsi in history) deposed his father and seized power.
         He went on radio the results of four years of independence and appointed Michel Micombero as his prime minister ... the end of the Kingdom of Burundi was engaged.
On 17 September 1966, a cabinet reshuffle sparked the conflict between the young monarch and his prime minister. The list of ministers had been imposed by the National Youth Rwagasore (JNR) and the army, to weaken the political clout of the Prime Minister.          Ntare V wanted to create Secretariats of state placed directly under his autority, which was strongly resented Michel Micombero who opposed it strongly.
The sovereign Burundi used radio to revoke the foreign minister, Dr Pius Masumbuko.
On 7 November 1966, he went directly into the local newspaper spoke with the intent to revoke the entire government of Michel Micombero. The Paras commandos emerged and prevented him from committing the irreparable.
Two weeks after this incident, Ntare V went on an official trip to Kinshasa, in neighboring Congo, without any illusion of return. Has he consulted General Joseph Mobutu, the new master of the great Congo on this?
Four days after his departure, his prime minister, Captain Michel Micombero, accompanied by several officers, came to the Burundi National Radio. Registration defective delayed the dissemination of his message to the nation that went on the air the next day.
November 28, 1966, the reign of Mwami Ntare ended. Captain Michel Micombero proclaimed the Republic of Burundi and became its first president.

A young landless stateless asylum.

Ntare V fled to Munich, traveled to Belgium and Morocco. Having reconciled with his father Mwambutsa IV, he often traveled to Switzerland to pay him a courtesy visit in the tradition Rundi.
In March 1972, Arthémon Simbananiye, Foreign Minister was in Brussels. By chance, he stayed for two weeks in the same hotel as Ntare V. They met several times. We conclude that there was a secret negotiation of return Ntare V of Burundi.
March 21, 1972, Ntare V left Germany and went to Uganda where he was the guest of President Idi Amin.
30 March 1972, he won Bujumbura, accompanied by the son of Leopold Biha and Ugandan officers.
As the airplane departed from General Idi Amin, the young king was placed in a helicopter and taken to Gitega. On arrival at the military camp, he got off the helicopter in handcuffs.
When the Ugandan government learned that Ntare V was arrested on his arrival, the Ugandan Minister of Foreign Affairs made a statement and said that President Michel Micombero had assured the Ugandan government that if Ntare V was returning to ordinary citizens, all its security will be provided.
We now know from reliable sources and by testimony cross, that the ex-king Ntare V was never intended to go to Burundi, even as a private citizen, after having received written assurances of President Michel Micombero.

The real tragic death of a teenage King Charles Ndizeye, Ntare V.

End of March 1972, Ntare V was in "business" in the Ugandan capital, Kampala. General Idi Amin Dada of Uganda master summoned him to the presidency. It was a trap.
Events rushed. The personal aircraft of President of Uganda, a DC3, and delivered him directly in Bujumbura. He did not understand what was happening. For several weeks he was placed under house arrest.
April 26, the assembly of the Uprona party took repressive measures against those who had not yet joined the JRR (Revolutionary Youth Rwagasore) and asked the President of the Republic to enact a law establishing the supremacy of UPRONA .
28 April 1972, during the cabinet meeting, President Michel Micombero began the agenda the fate of Ntare V. Ministers failed to agree on his fate. Micombero Michel and his closest advisers, all from his clan-the-Bahima are panicking ... Having lost the confidence of Ministers, Michel Micombero decided to revoke the entire government. The next day at noon April 29, 1972, the revocation was made public.

The first Burundian genocide had begun.

Dismissal of ministers triggered the settlement of accounts. Ex-Ministers Hutu, Tutsi and Baganwa are immediately hunted down, those who are caught are executed without any trial.
During a rally in southern Burundi, two ministers Bahima, near Micombero, young people from the JJR distribute caller contacts the Burundian people to exterminate members of the royal family and royalists all (that is to say the families of dignitaries Hutu, Tutsi and the Baganwa).
The pretext was found that while they were spirited to foment a coup against the young captain.
And for this to be likely, false news are broadcast on national radio from April 30, 1972: "Burundi is invaded by rebels, they triggered fierce fighting in Rumonge and Nyanza-Lac. In Gitega, central, monarchists attempted to issue Ntare V, but he was killed during the fighting. "
          The lie was used first and foremost to cover up the murder of the young king Ntare V we hastened to flee in a mass grave April 29, 1972. The Burundi had just started its inexorable descent into hell.
The magnitude of the genocide was unprecedented: a population of 3 million inhabitants, 900,000 and 50,000 Hutu perished others went into exile.
The new republic of Burundi was now paved and would be corpses.
The heart of the old Mwami Mwambutsa installed in an apartment in the commune of Meyrin, a suburb of Geneva turned away permanently from his kingdom.
Even a curse on his part would not be enough to soothe her grief. Deep in himself he no longer wished that death away from this carnage. For him the Burundi was no longer his land even for a final resting place!
He saw the latest pictures forever family decimated Louis Rwagasore shot in 1961 by Kageorgis, a poor Greek paid by the Chinese, his younger brother Charles Ndizeye, who had corrupted by Captain Michel Micombero he had the unfortunate idea of ​​appointing Prime Minister. Finally his brother Ignace Kamatari cousins ​​and all other victims of this murderous folly unspeakable.

Back under duress?

"Go home sir, forgive us. Come relax at the Mausoleum overlooking Bujumbura, along with your older son (Louis Rwagasore), our national hero. Your younger brother, Prince Charles Ndizeye, based as hundreds of thousands of Burundians somewhere in a mass grave. Sire, you are part of our history. Give us at least the opportunity to show and tell our children: "Here lies Mwambutsa IV, King of Burundi". Geneva is far from Burundi, Majesty. "

Colette Uwimana is a great lady sexagenarian. Her port princely barely conceals her malaise. In Burundi, it is hard to erase the traces of sorrow. It is the culture of excellence by unspoken, never expressed. The word is that parade. It is never an expression of deep feelings. The look of Burundians speak more than his language especially for a princess Muganwa.
It was difficult to distinguish from the thousands of international civil servants who haunt the Palais des Nations in Geneva. This is where she spent her entire career.
The daughter of Mwami Mwambutsa IV and the Queen Mother Teresa Kanyonga had a mission much more difficult when she moved to Geneva, "Addressing the royal tomb" that is to say, bloom, wash and especially pay the fee from the grave in a city where the rest of the dead is not eternal. You have to pay regularly to qualify to retain the square keeps his dead. Otherwise newcomers take their place.
It was not even allowed to plant Erythrina coral (or clump) that marks the locations of cemeteries in the Great Lakes region. Not that it is in Foute, but here it is long since dead and ancestors lost their sacredness and the right to immortality.
You have to be rich like Brunschwig and bequeath his fortune to the city for your necropolis may be a tourism object at the heart of Geneva. That the sovereign would never have wished Burundi (Burundi requires modesty!) Even if he had not been stripped of his throne.
It is therefore by her own funds deducted probably his government salary. The state of Burundi has never thought bothered him show support to this day that is to say 35 years.

National imperative against veto family.

At the time I publish this article, the remains of mwami Mwambutsa IV were exhumed. Geneva for the administration, the bill's lease Feuillasses in Meyrin cemetery has not been honored.
         But the Princess Esther Kamatari, (daughter of Ignace Kamatari, brother of the murdered king in 1966), former international model and former candidate for president based in France, has provided the authorities Helvetic Mwambutsa's will.
It requires respect for his memory: that is to say, except to be buried elsewhere in Burundi. The Geneva State Council has been obliged to suspend the left Mortuary.
Embarrassing situation for the Burundian government was preparing to receive fire Mwambutsa IV May 23, 2012 and solemnly buried in Muramvya (instead of his induction Nov. 16, 1915) May 25, 2012.
"Would you be prepared to have your father's remains be repatriated to Burundi to be buried with honor?" Princess Colette Uwimana replied: "Listen, I'll tell you the last words of my father. After what had arrived, he wanted to Burundians. He died angry (April 26, 1977), he expressed his desire to be buried in Switzerland. He would not return to Burundi. even death. That's what were his last words (...). They still led to regicide Prince Charles, almost a boy, they deposed three months later, the murdered and thrown into a mass grave, how could he remain indifferent to both cruelty? "
This is the prayer of the Burundian authorities seeking to repatriate the remains of King Mwambutsa hoping to reconcile their history with the Burundians.
This is certainly the opinion and desire of the historian Burundian Emile Mworoha who believes that the last remains of the king must be in his country. And that his body no longer belongs only to the family but to the memory of Burundi and its state.

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