lundi 7 mai 2012

Congo Brazzaville: The incredible fate of Abbot Fulbert Youlou.


Died in poverty and solitude more absolute.

         May 5, 1972 in the early morning, a Spaniard is walking through a garden of Madrid. Suddenly, he notices an inert black body wrapped in an old  coat on a bench and approached.
The old man was died overnight. He called police who quickly comes to the finding and removing the corpse.
         After a brief search, police made an amazing discovery: the man is not any political refugee. This is the Abbot Fulbert Youlou (1917-1972), former President of Congo - Brazzaville, struck down by hepatitis crisis in complete solitude.
         The news spread like wildfire in Madrid and in European capitals. In Paris, Georges Pompidou (1911-1974) shrugs his shoulders with contempt. He does not care nearly Congo and hates his communist president, Captain Marien N'Gouabi (1938-1977) hatched by Communist China and he wants his head on a platter.

Plots and intrigues of Mobutu poison Brazzaville.

         In Kinshasa, General Mobutu Sese Seko (1930-1997), President of Zaire new saber champagne. He's definitely got rid of the last support of his enemy No. 1: Moise Tshombe (1919-1969), former president of the Katanga and former Prime Minister of Congo he comes to poison in his prison of Batna in Algeria (march 1969). He rubs his hands also for getting rid of even more subtle way of his predecessor, Joseph Kasavubu (1913-1969), the rare African friend of the poor ex-prelate.
         Before his death in March 1969, the patriarch of the Bakongo in house arrest in Tshela his village of Bas-Congo had become so poor that he had done anything to help his cousin in exile. Their joint project to restore the great kingdom of Kongo, had remained at the stage of dreams.
         Mobutu could therefore continue to quietly foment plots against his neighbor pro-Chinese N'Gouabi Marien. The French press him to end this young communist who shouts slogans against long days at the gates of Kinshasa.

The fear of the ghost of André-Grenard Matsoua (1899-1942).

         In Congo Brazzaville, brothers and supporters of the late Abbé Fulbert Youlou, the Lari threatening to revolt if his body is not repatriated to be buried after a funeral worthy of a former President of the Republic.
         President Marien N'Gouabi, embarrassed, accept the repatriation of the body to avoid any repetition of a messianic movement in the image of Matsouanisme, whose Abbot Fulbert Youlou had become adept in the last years of his presidency. Excommunicated by the Vatican, the former priest had poured into the sectarianism by political opportunism.
         December 16, 1972, he was buried in his hometown of Madibou during a traditional funeral ceremony lari, after being exposed for three days in the cathedral of Brazzaville.
First President of the Republic of Congo, Abbot Fulbert Youlou is liable for all the ills of the country by the socialist and revolutionary that follow.
         Anything that reminds us what is erased after the Congolese then call "The Three Glorious", that is to say the insurgency three days of 13, 14 and 15 August 1963.

Resignation sensational, fantastic flight and the first golden exile.

Resigned before the roar of the crowd, Father Fulbert Youlou was handed power by signing his resignation three political offices which he had seized: President, Mayor of Brazzaville and member of the National Assembly.
         Immediately after his resignation, he was interned in the current camp "Fulbert Youlou". A few weeks later, he was transferred with women and children (illegitimate) Djoué gendarmerie camp. Fearing for his safety and his life, his successor Alphonse Massamba-Debate (1921-1977) the exfiltrate to Leopoldville (Kinshasa) with his friend Joseph Kasavubu March 25, 1965. Prime Minister of the Democratic Republic of Congo, Moise Tshombe grant him political asylum a warm golden brown.

Guilty of all the evils of the two Congos.

         June 8, 1965, his trial before a people's court in Brazzaville is a true spectacle. A speedy trial policy, scorning to a jury. He is accused of having used one for personal warplane type Heron, received from France. He was convicted of embezzling public funds. He is found responsible for the deaths of three trade unionists during the storming of the prison Aug. 13, 1963.
         Finally he is accused of involvement in the death of Patrice Lumumba (1925-1961), the former Prime minister of D.R. Congo and convicted of supporting the secession of Katanga led by Moses Kapenda Tshombe.
The verdict is exemplary: sentenced to death in absentia with immediate seizure of his property, that is to say his farm Madibou and two mansions in Brazzaville.
         The old prelate defends himself by publishing a true anti-Communist pamphlet entitled "J'accuse China", published by La Table Ronde editions in Paris in 1966, hoping to be accepted by France.

True-false priest, and polygamous father.

         But in France, he has an implacable enemy: Yvonne De Gaulle-born Yvonne Vendroux (1900-1979). Devout Catholic, she could not bear this eccentric priest defrocked in white cassock sewn by the Great Parisian couturiers, despite the ban of the Vatican.
         The only thing he avoids: Mass for the simple reason that he did not have time between his romantic escapades and his three political offices (Mayor of Brazzaville, Member of the National Assembly and President of the Republic). And indeed it is the height of the story, the true-false priest, openly displayed his polygamy: four wives and mistresses occasional official, mothers of illegitimate children.
         In November 1965 he informed the French government's desire to settle in Nice. The discomfort takes hold of Paris. General Charles De Gaulle (1890-1970) was hostile to his landing in France after having supported in the resignation. Despite the recommendations of his adviser for African affairs, Jacques Foccart (1913-1997), French President threatens to send him back to Kinshasa, he landed with Women and children at Le Bourget January 29, 1966.

While the Congo is going through a violent political novel.

         Based in Kinshasa where the new President Joseph-Desire Mobutu (who comes to permanently get rid of Kasavubu and Tshombe), his supporters foment the first coup 14 July 1966 and relapse in January 1967. In this atmosphere poisonous, the Saint-Cyr
captain N'Gouabi  who succeeded in ousting his successor, the Protestant unionist Alphonse Massamba-Debat.
         Just installed to power he avoids two other plots fomented from Kinshasa in February and November 1969. Are made by hand in the bag, his nephew, Captain Felix Mouazabakani, commander of the Congolese Armed Forces and a former foreign minister, Bernard Kolelas (1933-2009). The latter, also a refugee in Kinshasa, will moderate resistance to all diehard socialist regimes. Torture, beatings at the numerous arrests, political trials, exiles, prestigious political positions, nothing will have missed him until his death November 23, 2009.
         March 22, 1970, Lieutenant Pierre Kinganga "Sirocco" (1936-1970) that organizes the fourth failed coup against Captain Marien N'Gouabi. He lost his life during the clashes.

A former head of state ended his life on a bench in a public park.

         After serious negotiations, Fulbert Youlou was sent to Spain without women and children (illegitimate) who settled permanently in France in anonymity. General Francisco Franco Bahamonde of (1936-1975) made a gesture apparently humanitarian, he agrees to receive the former Congolese president, but refuses to grant special status, nor to support financially. Had he not paid enough to support the secession of Katanga in 1963 which was a fiasco and the first coup against President Mobutu by European mercenaries who had failed miserably in 1967?
         The French government granted him a lean viaticum of 500,000 francs. A pittance compared to his many family duties unmentionable. He is only shipped to Madrid, his final resting place while in Congo began the era of political assassinations and coups.
It was not until the Sovereign National Conference for 1991 he is rehabilitated along with other Congolese leaders died for the nation.
         Not to forget his status as a priest, the giant statue erected in his memory outside the town hall of Brazzaville displays his eternal cassock.

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