jeudi 26 juillet 2012

Mali in the dark star wars.

 
         President Amadou Toumani Toure dreams of leaving the power permanently to make way for a new president elected.
         He was inexhaustible praise for the exemplary democracy permanently rooted in Malian political mores of his countrymen, he believed. With his coup that overthrew General Moussa Traoré in March 1991, had he not succeeded in strengthening our democracy as desired. Does he not been elected without political party to prove its popularity?
         Did he failed to govern for 10 years without opposition? His dream of exporting this model throughout Africa? A model stamped "ATT" he had once attempted to impose on Patasse, president of the Central African Republic after passing control between him and Professor Alpha Oumar Konare. Is it painful to write his memoirs for a brilliant historian?
         After delivering lessons in democracy to Africa during the decade as President of the African Union, the latter took a sabbatical akin to monastic silence.
         No appearance, no item even in its own publications, no images, except the one printed on the cloth of his wife also talented historian!
Even the arrest of his son, the commander of the Air Force, former member of the State Security, Mamadou Konare, aka Malamine May 4, 2012 could not get him out of his silence. Yet he has much to say the historian.

What is the Azawad?


         They are known as the Tuareg, but this name refers to both the Nomads of Niger as Chad, Mauritania and Libya. Because the European powers have ignored the artificial division of Niger, Algeria, Mauritania and Algeria. Artificial lines on the vast Sahel-Saharan region.
          The Kel Tamashek exist yet since the dawn of humanity. They do not feel Negroes or Arabs or by the ocher color of their skin or their culture. But as the Roma and nomadic peoples, they developed their culture regardless of the territory, as their map is drawn on the vault famous. This is the transition zone between the Sahel and Sahara. They are unfortunately the only ones to decipher.
         Add to this that they are matrilineal and giving too much power to women, then we understand the reasons for their exclusion from the colonial era. In 1958, the colonial Catholic France could not grant or autonomy, much less independence in a matrilineal people.
         Their National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad (MNLA) was born almost their outrage at their exclusion from French colonization.
         Should we get rid of them so far by eliminating physically? Since 1963, he felt to 100,000 victims of the Malian army nothing but the Kel Tamashek. A silent genocide and pernicious. Too pacifist, too, as feminists or conversely, is weary of the struggle they have chosen to release their jackets desert territory (which they know just fix the borders). But the poor Tuareg, Mali-born chose the worst ally, the enemy of mankind: the Islamists abroad. It to quickly get rid of these "bare-foot" that were not even true Muslims, to float on their "AZAWAD" the black flag of the Mohammedans of the first dark hours of Islam .
         A black veil which now covers the West Africa as one casts the Al-Shabab on East Africa from Somalia. All these Islamists have one thing in common: they dream of building by the sword, an original Islamic state.

And what is still such barbarisms: * AQIM, Boko Haram, and Ansar Dine Mujao *, Dad?


         On March 29, 2012 Malians go quietly about their business despite the sounds of boots reported in the North. The Tuaregs are agitated again. That day, the fall of Kidal passes almost unnoticed. This is not the first time, we will negotiate. But this time they were trained in Libya. With the death of their cousin Toubou, Mo'ammar Gaddafi, they return to Mali, mounted on trucks instead of camels and equipped with a veritable arsenal of rocket launchers, RPGs and missiles.
         Chinese machine guns and Russian missiles mounted on Pickup, have replaced the old AK47 burned to Timbuktu by President Alpha Oumar Konare in the presence of head of state of Ghana, Jerry Rawlings, then President of the Economic Community States of West Africa (ECOWAS), after signing the final peace agreement on 27 March 1996.
         They tumble down the dunes by a bite from a Malian army miserably equipped. The rout was complete. Malian democracy has forgotten to equip his army.
         It was quickly forgotten as Meharists in this vast desert Tuaregs were red under the orders of the officers, not infantrymen. The French remember them perfectly. So what were these French hostages of AQIM in Mali's desert? The history of independent Mali omitted this detail that jumps out at them today as a boomerang.
Of "rare earths",
probably oil and other rare metals ... in the desert holds the secret that can now detect using special aircraft. But how to control this potential without the help of the descendants of the camel?

Meanwhile in Bamako ...


         The people are totally unaware of Bamako saving gestures. They see African wars but with emotion in others. Gao, Kidal and Timbuktu, the regional capitals of the North fell in less than three days (March 30 to April 1, 2012), two months after the outbreak of a rebellion that took a mere fit of temper. Where to go? What if these turbaned conquer Bamako? They are scrambling to accommodate their brethren of Timbuktu, Taoudenni, Kidal and Gao who could not join Algeria, Mauritania, Niger and Burkina Faso. We tremble in Mopti.
         In early May, the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and the International Red Cross (ICRC) estimated at 320,000 the number of refugees and displaced persons.
Not only the Tuareg are superbly equipped, but mostly they crossed other revolted at the turn of the dunes, even harder to give them a hand. Leaves to betray them by advocating an archaic Islam and the application of Sharia unknown in Mali.
         France, which formerly had to aid Mali is conspicuously absent: true democracy requires, they are on the campaign trail. In addition, the president who had anointed UN to remove him from power, Libya's Gaddafi Mo'ammar with the support of Albion and wicked Uncle Sam has not received the right to sue for his mercenaries. In fact she had not even afford. In Paris, we pray only for French hostages held by the Islamists of Al Qaeda in the Maghreb.
         Instead of bickering about the fate of Libyan, African Union should have been speechifying about the harmful consequences of its disappearance. Which would have avoided the funk in Niamey, Nouakchott and N'Djamena while in Algiers, we played the ostrich policy.
         Now, in what language Mali will he translate "Azawad? "This country out of Tuareg legends for the children to place it on a map and history? And how to translate into Bambara, AQIM and Ansar Dine? Historians have searched the annals of beautiful black continent, nowhere does the AZAWAD is mentioned as a country that existed in pre-colonial Africa. And if it was a mirage straight out of the Malian desert?

A coup for real!

         22 March 2012, this army clochardisée the reported unexpectedly. Sidelined Green Berets will flock to the camera to remember the people and proclaiming the death of this democracy that has forgotten. AK40 old who can not oppose the Qaddafi’s missile can still kill unarmed civilians. They allow you to imprison was only for a few days the ministers concerned to rondouillards political equations.
         Starting with the first woman prime minister since independence: Cissé Mariam Sidibé Kaïdama. A story that vaguely recalls Ms. Agathe Uwilingiyimana, the first African university, Prime Minister and first martyr of the Rwanda genocide. (With the exception of Elisabeth Domitien Central part of the antics of Bokassa).
         Malians "K.O. "Are deeply wounded in their pride legendary. They who were so pampered by the Libyan leader did not imagine becoming its first orphans. "It is unacceptable to us," cry the young frightened and furious down the street.
         The disbelief that quickly turns into anger also reads in the look of Mali from Paris who had other concerns prosaic. Help with donations displaced North, yes, but until when?

The African Union and ECOWAS, K.O. upright!


         The African Union has been led for ten years by a brilliant historian, moreover is a former president of Mali KO standing, while ECOWAS was distraught. She thought she was solid almost unshakable, here transformed into an elephant hoof sand.
         The fish rots from the head they say in Africa, the crisis of democracy in Côte d'Ivoire barely resolved, it was believed ECOWAS saved his presidency by giving the Ivorian Alassane Ouattara.
         But it was quickly forgotten as the "Baker" Laurent Gbagbo, who wanted to go against history was also a historian. And if its charms had been dug up in Abidjan to Bamako and exported in Bissau? If the Devil, first installed in Abidjan before traveling to Tripoli had seized in northern Mali?
         The war against Gaddafi Mo'ammar by the West has caused deep unease in Africa. Her live performance of Gaddafi by Arab rebels (Qatari mercenaries?) was put on the head of the French president, Nicolas Sarkozy. The reminiscences of French colonization in North Africa (followed by a bloody decolonization of Algeria) have not yet been digested by the decolonized.
         The intervention of France and Britain in Libya (despite the flush to the teeth caused by the excesses of the dictatorship of Gaddafi) was a political blunder. Would have had it fall like a ripe fruit like his peers Ben Ali of Tunisia and Hosni Mubarak of Egypt! But the libyan president was too rich and had used the Libyan oil revenues to corrupt and manipulate the West.
         He has financed the presidential campaign of President Nicolas Sarkorzy of 50 million euros (100 million dollars according to Belarusian President Alexander Lukashenko) in 2007 Essid said Bashir, Tunisian lawyer of former Libyan Prime Minister Baghdadi Mahmoudi. With the same fortune, he had succeeded in many vassals of his African peers. Those who owed him nothing could be counted on the fingertips.
         There are many advantage to ridicule (often forcing them to convert to Islam) after granting an annuity or a viaticum survival.

An astrophysicist to save Mali?


         Cheick Modibo Diarra is its expense: astrophysicist has a nice build on impeccable CV and dream of a presidential destiny in Mali for over fifteen years, it is now perceived in him as a man to know a little opportunistic, and not necessarily competent.
         "In the astral conjunction of time, Bamako needs, not an uncle in America, but a seasoned strategist and pugnacious, cunning enough to reunify the country and hold a junta after gaffe greedy of honors and prebends, "
thought the French journalist Vincent Hugueux at time of appointment.
         Chairman of Microsoft Africa since 2006, headquartered in Johannesburg, Cheikh Modibo Diarra has no experience in political or military. There is no weight in the face of the junta Amadou Sanogo, it is supposed to be replaced-but always dictates its law. In addition it has ignored a detail that might interfere with the Malian plain, it is the step-son of former President Moussa Traore, overthrown in March 1991 "to establish democracy."
         He was appointed by Traoré, former Assembly Speaker and acting President, Dioncouda Traoré.
         Mali is struggling to emerge from crises which plunged the coup of 22 March and lightning raid Tuareg rebels. Tuesday, despite a formal return to constitutional order, many questioned the willingness of the junta to actually hand over power to civilians. Admittedly, under the framework agreement signed on April 7 between the coup and the representative of the Community states of West Africa (ECOWAS), a prime minister was appointed to support the interim president, Dioncounda Traoré.
         This providential man, who has his hands wide powers, took the appearance of a singular man. First, because if Malian Cheick Modibo Diarra is, it is also a U.S. citizen. Then because the man has an unusual background. Astrophysicist high level, he directed several space missions in collaboration with NASA. This past gave him a certain notoriety among the affluent in Bamako but without offering a genuine popularity.
At age 60, Cheick Modibo Diarra is in fact a political unknown.

From bad to Sylla


         From his" djatiguiya "legendary, Mali suddenly sank in the baseness and the cycle of violence. “Congratulations on this great achievement! Nay, for this stupidity! And say that this is the work of the junta. This is unheard of! Molested a president in his palace!
Opponents of the transitional president went too far in their treachery. How a Dioncouda Traoré, beaten, can still lead this divided country, where the army is failing. The task is difficult if not impossible,
"wrote the Daily Burkinabe Sidwaya May 24, 2012.
         "Twenty-one years of democratic governance have been dismissed by some mutinous soldiers who seemed more concerned about their own welfare than that of the people of the nation they serve. Their actions have endangered the territorial integrity of Mali, allowed the rebels to hand over half the country, set back economic development and reduces the government's ability to cope with drought conditions in the north. "
Said May 16, 2012 the U.S. Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs, Johnnie Carson.
         "Mali was a democratic country with a reputation and even praised as such by the media and NGOs. But any more than we built a house and forget the basics we do not build a democracy on sand. "
According to Paul Kagame, President of Rwanda.

The analysis of a French diplomat close observer of Mali.


         "This is Alpha Oumar Konaré Amadou Toumani Toure has decided (ATT) would become president in 2002. After the first lap tops ATT in 2002, with a margin of 1% to Soumaila Cissé, in a pocket handkerchief. And the electoral commission canceled 500,000 votes, about 10% of the electorate. For 300,000 more votes were triggered fire on Laurent Gbagbo in Ivory Coast last year.
(...) There have been manipulated to make it Soumaila Cisse and not Ibrahim Boubacar Keita (IBK), which comes second. Observation missions elections were there, but we stuck with the results.
(...) In 2007 was no different. ATT is elected in the first round with nearly 70% of the vote and a turnout of 30%, which means that 21% of voters chose the Malian. This is an extremely low legitimacy. And even on the ballot, we knew very well that the frauds were very important. That's democracy in Mali. "
         Only ... the facade fell and the determinants of the crisis were long gone: corruption involving all spheres, at the highest level, to the Presidential Palace Koulouba, a largely informal economy (...), trafficking of all kind. "
concludes Laurent Bigot, Deputy Director for West Africa to the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

Recommended reading:

Saint Girons, A., The Tuareg rebellions,
Ibis Press, Paris, 2009.
-Edward Poulton R., Towards reintegration of Tuareg in Mali,
1996.
-Baqué P., New stalled hopes for peace in the Tuareg conflict in Mali
, 1995.

Abbreviations:


* Azawad:
National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad.
* Ansar Dine
: Islamist.
* AQIM:
Al-Qaeda in Islamic Maghreb.
* Mujao
: Movement for the uniqueness and Jihad in West Africa.
* Boko Haram
: People engaged in spreading the teachings of the Prophet and Jihad movement founded by Yusuf Mohamed in 2002.

The Country in brief:

         Mali covers 1,246,190 km2. In 2009 it was inhabited by 14,517,176 people. The major tribes are: the Bambara, the Senoufou, Soninke, Bobos, the Dogon, the Khassonké, Malinke, Minianka, the Fulani, the Sénoufous, Soninke or Sarakolés the Sonhaïs, the Tuareg, Toucpuleurs. It shares borders with seven countries (Niger, Mauritania, Algeria, Burkina Faso, Ivory Coast, Guinea and Senegal), It is a landlocked country

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