dimanche 19 août 2012

United States: The mother of Barack Obama, a black slave down!

 
The father of the current U.S. President, Barack H. Obama is the Kenyan Barack Obama Sr. (1936-1982), son of Onyango. His mother is a white American, Stanley Ann Dunham (1942-1995) daughter of Stanley (1918-1992) and Madelyn Dunham (1922-2008). But what we did not know until now, she has black blood.
        
In an article in the New York Times, July 30, 2012, genealogists Ancestry. Com claim to have evidence to show that Ms. Stanley Ann Dunham down a black ancestor of the seventeenth century, from Cameroon and Angola, by the name John Punch.

John Punch was he Cameroonian or rather Angolan?

        
The  A.D.N. of John Punch is part of haplogroup which is commonly found in Cameroon, while the majority of Africans deported to America on Portuguese ships before 1640 were either captured in Angola is the Kingdom of Kongo (now Bas Congo DRC, Cabinda enclave of Angola and Congo Brazzaville). At this time, no slave came from Cameroon today. Therefore, John Punch was probably Angolans, not Cameroonians.
         He is all part of the first Africans brought to Virginia in the seventeenth century and were among the servants under contracts "indentured servants," because we do not speak about "slaves" in North America (this is not yet the United USA). Especially in the Southern America, the status of the human person is defined according to the color of his skin. Africans were mentioned in the documents by the term "Negroes", a Portuguese word that appears in the English language only in the sixteenth century. Portugal was the only European country then involved in the slave trade.

He became famous thanks to his innovative condemnation.

        
"In 1640, Mr. Punch, then servant bound by an indenture (for planter Hugh Gwyn), fled from Virginia and went to Maryland. At that time he was captured, and with two white servants (and were brought to Jameston then tried and convicted), and this is what has led some historians to consider him the first African to have been legally sanctioned slavery, years before Virginia passed laws allowing me slavery " write professors Linda Heywood and John Thornton of Boston University.
        
"The identure" close to "indentured" was then in the British American colonies the dominant contractual form of agricultural workers in the plantations.
This involved a period of temporary easement during which a person is committed to working on the land of a settler in exchange for his journey and sometimes obtaining a freehold land at the end of the contract.
        
This contract could be applied to the original white workers as black workers, even if the sources are lacking to determine whether the two groups enjoyed the same conditions.
        
The court applied to John Punch was innovative in two ways: it introduced the idea that a man of the colony of Virginia could be sentenced to a state of servitude for life, a concept that was later explained in a text dating from 1661.
        
It also established that the laws of the colony of Virginia applied differentially depending on whether one was considered a Black or White as a. As of this date, this principle is applied repeatedly in court decisions Virginian to extend to all areas of social life.
        
The combination of these two principles, slavery and racial differentiation, was consecrated by the Code of Slavery, adopted in 1705 by Virginia.

From Bunch …to John Punch

        
"President Obama is the great grand-son of John Punch, was the first African to be documented enslaved for life in the American colonies., "Wrote Joseph Shumway, a genealogist at Ancestry.com.
        
The white mother of President Ann Stanley Dunham is a direct descendant of the first known slave in the American colonies through a family name Bunch.
        
"We discovered through D.N.A. testing performed on family members Bunch, their direct ancestors of African origin ... Finally, we were able to establish a connection with the first Bunch family members and a gentleman named John Punch "adds Joseph Shumway.
        
Regarding the difference in names - Punch with a "P" versus Bunch with a "B", the researchers say it is not unusual that the name is written as it sounds in 1637.
        
"We are extremely confident in the conclusion that we reached. (...) In the early seventeenth century, racial attitudes in the colony of Virginia were of a different nature than they later became ... Laws prohibiting intermarriage were established in the seventeenth century (....) Over the generations, the family of Obama's mother continued to intermarry with white and white became for all purposes useful, "he says.
        
President Barack Obama is the first in a line of seven generations who moved from Virginia, Tennessee, Arkansas and finally Kansa which moved her great-grandmother, Leonora McCurry and where were born his grandmother Madelyn Payne mother and his mother, Stanley Ann Dunham.

Obama, the prototype of the universal man ...

        
In a previous article, we described the complexity of racial, cultural, religious of the current occupant of the White House. From its origins, we will one discovery.
        
"At that moment, he understood the Luo clan and tribal Obamas English and Welsh and Scottish and Irish and German white side of his family. And now we discover something more! "Maraniss writes his biographer who traveled to Kenya and Indonesia to research the influences that shaped Barack Obama. He said that the roots of various American president make it difficult to categorize.
        
"Because of the color of his skin, he is African American. (...) But on a cultural level, he is not African. He had to learn. He ... has never been easy to categorize. This is part of the attraction and the mystery of Barack Obama.”
          And ... his mother now finds itself with origins Angola or Cameroon.
        
He is the prototype of the universal man, who tomorrow will erase the notion of skin color, national boundaries and embody globalization.
         As in the song "Lily" Pierre Perret "he has the color of love, against which nothing can be done"

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