U.S. happiness by the Gross Domestic Product.
Ben Bernanke, chairman of the Federal Reserve (FED) has estimated that the traditional economic indicators, including Gross Domestic Product (GDP), did not make sufficient account of the "welfare" of the population and its real situation.
"By looking only at aggregate data, it may provide a partial picture of what many people experience. (...) Even if some essential data, including consumer spending or disposable income (...), have evolved in the right direction, it is clear that many individuals continue to face economic difficulties. (...) We should seek a better indicator of economic well-being, the ultimate goal of our policy decisions, "Bernanke said in opening a symposium on" wealth and income "in Massachusetts ( Northeast U.S.).
Citing Bhutan and its "Gross Domestic Happiness" or the indicator of "better life" of the OECD, Mr. Bernanke called for better measure what is the level of education, leisure time or strength family ties.
Asked by France, the American Nobel laureate in economics Joseph Stiglitz had, in a report in 2009 recommended to enhance the measurement of GDP by indicators of "welfare" taking into account non-market activities (housework , leisure ...) or the level of inequality.
The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) whose priority is the sustainable development reflects the recommendations of the Stiglitz Commission by the index "Living Better" go beyond "GDP".
Currently, the economic growth of a country is only measured by the change of its GDP.
Gross National Happiness of Bhutan!
When the king of Bhutan, Jigme Singye Wangvchuck advocated his concept of "Gross National Happiness" in 1972 to build the economy of his country and assess the level of life in psychological terms, he was considered an alien.
And on this concept, Bhutan, Buddhist nation of 682,321 inhabitants, sandwiched between India and China, proclaimed that this was a goal of "Gross National Happiness".
The National Assembly of Bhutan passed a law prohibiting tobacco sales across the country and establishing a 100% tax on cigarettes imported for private consumption.
All who are caught selling tobacco to Buthan must pay a fine of $ 223 or 10 000 Nudes - the average monthly income amounting to $ 16 in the kingdom
The economy of Bhutan is one of the less developed world and is based on agriculture, livestock, forestry, the sale to India of electricity from hydrodynamic and tourism. Life expectancy is 66 years and it takes 8 hours to travel 200 km television was introduced there in 1999.
Parliamentary monarchy, Bhutan was ruled by King Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuck (31 years) who succeeded his father Jigme Singye Wangchuck (1972-2006) since November 8, 2008.
The Gross National Happiness (GNH) and the Human Development Index (HDI).
The alternative index of Bhutan Gross National Happiness (GNH) rather broadly encompasses the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) or the human development index (HDI), proposed in 1990 by economist Amartya Sen (Indian) and Mahbub ul Haq (Pakistan) at the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) to assess the level of human development in countries of the World.
Happiness is not quantifiable, its measurement can therefore only be based on qualitative measures. The reliability of these results depends on how information is collected and analyzed.
In fact, Gross National Happiness was not designed for all Bhutanese, but only for the population Bhotia who in the 1990s - the time of the exodus of Lhotsampa (of Nepalese origin) - was in the minority numerically, but politically dominant. And preservation of culture means that of Bhotia.
"A people that sings and dances is a happy people" once said the late president of Zaire, Mobutu Sese Seko (1930-1997). He was literally right, but he failed to mention that the Zairian people of the time by dancing for him and singing his praises and his slogans in misery, was happy in appearance!