samedi 28 septembre 2013

Austria: "The list of Freud " or how Sigmund Freud sacrificed his sisters to the Nazis*.

 
Sigmund Freud, the father of modern psychoanalysis, brother and father first.

        
Sigmund Schlomo Freud was born on May 6, 1856 in Freiberg, Moravia in the Austro-Hungarian Empire (now Fridor, Czech Republic), physician and neurologist, founder of psychoanalysis died in London on 23 September 1939.
        
Third son of Kalamon Jakob Freud Jewish wool merchant and Amalia Nathanson (11836-1931), originating in Galicia between Poland and Ukraine. He is the eldest of eight children, two boys and five girls : Julius (October 1857-15 April 1858), (Anna (31 December 1858-11 March 1955), Deborah alias Rosa Regina (March 21, 1860- deported on September 23, 1942), Maria aka Mitzi aka Dolfi (March 22, 1861, deported on 23 September 1942), Esther Adolfine (March 22, 1862-February 6, 1943), Pauline Regine (March 3, 1864, deported on 23 September 1942) and Gotthold Ephraim Alexander, born on April 18, 1866 , died in Toronto on April 22, 1943 .
        
While he is 3 years old, his family emigrated to Vienna, where he spend a studious children in relative poverty. After his brilliant medical school, he married Martha Bernays (1861-1951), Jewish like him on October 13, 1886 at Wandsbek. She gives him six children: Matilda, born in 1887, John Martin, born in 1889, Oliver, born in 1891, Ernest , born in 1892, Sophie, born in 1893 and Anna, born in 1895.
        
On the death of his father on 23 October 1896, Freud was dejected by pain. He discovered an Oedipus complex vis-à-vis his mother after "work digging into his past”.
        
In May 1933, his books were burned in Germany during the Nazi book burnings  yet he refuses to go into exile until March 1938, when the Germans come to Vienna. That’s when her daughter Anna was arrested one day by the Gestapo, he agreed to follow the advice of the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society, which  decides that every Jew analyst must leave the country, and the headquarters of the organization must be transferred where Freud resides.

I can heartily recommend the Gestapo to everyone (Sic).

        
Thanks to the intervention of the U.S. ambassador to France William Christian Bullitt (1891-1967) and especially a ransom of $ 4,824 paid to the Nazis by Princess Marie Bonaparte (1882-1962) -and  reimbursed by Freud on his arrival at London-, the first president of the Society of psychoanalysis in France, his wife, his daughter Anna and his domestic Paula Fichti can leave Vienna by Orient-Express on June 4, 1838 after the annexation (Anschluss) of Austria to Germany.
        
Upon leaving, he signed a declaration that he was not mistreated, "I, Professor Freud hereby declare that since the annexation of Austria by the German Reich, I was treated with the respect and consideration due to my reputation as a scientist by the German authorities and especially by the Gestapo and I could live and work enjoying full freedom, I could also continue the pursuit of my activities the way I wanted and to this end, I met with the full support of those interested , I have no place to send the smallest complaint".
        
According to his son Martin, he would have added ironically : "I can heartily recommend the Gestapo to everyone."

Home, installation and death of Freud in London.

         The Freud Family is received in London with honors, including the U.S. ambassador to France, William Christian Bullitt Freud has befried in recent years. The two men have worked together to effect a study of U.S. President Thomas Woodrow Wilson (1856-1924) entitled "Woodrow Wilson: A Psychological Study" published in 1966. He settled with his family in a chic house in 20 Maresfield Gardens in Hampstead (current Freud Museum). He was appointed a member of the Royal Society of Medicine and received the appointment at him, unable to move, exhausted by cancer of the jaw due to tobacco, which appeared in 1923 and thirty-two operations and successive treatments.
        
He received three grains of morphine at his request (a lethal dose) and dark in a coma before his staff and psychoanalyst Polish physician, Max Schur (1897-1969), with the consent of his wife Anna on September 23, 1939. That is why, on the eve of the death of Freud, Max Schur left London for the United States of America.

The list of Freud, the Oedipus complex and the unhappy fate of his sisters.

        
Discovered during his self-analysis, it is he who has the Oedipus complex a central concept of psychoanalysis. How has he been the victim by giving her own sisters to certain death in Nazi concentration camps? Would he not simply transferred his Oedipus complex his mother to her sisters by making the objects of his morbid hatred threshold of his poor dead ?
        
So that he issues visas for England, he is allowed to submit a list of twenty people to take with him. How has he been able to refuse to register the names of his sisters, Rosa, Mary, and Paula Adolfina, this list containing his doctor, the latter's family, his nurses, his servants, his sister-in ... and even his dog? Scorn, coldness, selfishness engineering, blindness to the Nazi threat? Freud claims that his sisters do not risk anything by staying in Vienna, choosing exile himself. They were deported to Theresienstadt from June 28, 1942 among 983 elderly. Only the eldest, Anna, emigrated with her husband, Eli Bernays since 1892, escapes deportation.
        
Thus, it is established that the siblings still living in Vienna, Freud was no exception deported in 1942 from Vienna to Theresienstadt in the first place. Paula Winternitz was gassed at Maly Trostinec along with Maria and Rosa Graf Treblinka in October 1942. Adolfine died of starvation in Theresienstadt on February 5, 1943.

A bold novel, beyond a partisan vision!

        
"The reasons for the decision of Freudare unknown, I could not imagine" recognizes the Macedonian writer Goce Smilevski* author of the novel : "The Freud Sisters (La liste de Freud), Belfond, Paris, 2013", to just out and subject to controversy, has been awarded the European Prize for Literature.
        
"In Macedonia, people are very few in the psychoanalyst, perhaps because in our small country, everyone talks a lot", smiled Goce Smilevski , that has been studied literature at several universities in Skopje Prague and Budapest.

         For the historian of psychoanalysis, Elisabeth Roudinesco, which bears no criticism of Freud, the latter's responsibility is not engaged, "the exile of Freud was negotiating hard and he could not do out Adolfine and sisters, it is because he did not get visas. not because he hated them. You could say in a novel, but not argue that it is the truth. There are rules to follow".
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* Born in 1975 in Skopje, where he still lives, novelist Goce Smilevski notably received the European Prize for Literature for this vibrant novel tribute to the struggle of women forgotten by history.

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