lundi 10 février 2014

Africa: African Leaders and the curse of number 13.

In Christian religions, the number 13 is a symbol following an interpretation of the Last Dinner, where Jesus had met the twelve apostles around him, the thirteenth person, Judas, the traitor, who is lead Jesus to death by crucifixion the number 13 was associated with misfortunes and sufferings of Jesus.

         The 13th of the month, from May 13 to October 13, 1917
, the Virgin Mary appeared to three shepherd is in the moors village of Fatima (Portugal) to announce their "the famous third secret" that shook the world.
         Pope John Paul II, shot and seriously wounded in St. Peter's Square in Rome on May 13, 1981, attributed his survival to the intervention of Mary during her feast day of Our Lady of Fatima and planted the ball extracted of his body in his crown.
What happens to the Pope Francis elected March 13, 2013?

         Without being superstitious, seeing certain events, there are questions about validity of certain beliefs, especially when they are repeated relentlessly. And by dissecting the biographies of African personalities, often those who are born with a double 13 or 13 and one 3 experiencing violent death notices.
         The latest is the Ghanaian writer and poet Kofi Awoonor N. W. George. Born on March 13, 1935, during a trip with his son, he decided to diner at Westgate Supermarket in Nairobi on September 23, 2013. Hostage with tens of Kenyans, he is shot in cold blood by the Shebab Somalis.
         Liberian President William Tolbert was born on May 13, 1913, Mason and pastor of the Baptist Church, constantly wore a large cross on his white suits like the conjuring spell bound at birth. This has not Samuel Kanyon Doe Sergeant to shoot him coolly on April 13, 1980 with his family in their apartment in Monrovia. 13 of his ministers knew publicly executed at the beach in front of Monrovia mondiovision.

Here are their bibographies and some personnalites killed on that curse of 13!

Abbas Hilmi I, Viceroy of Egypt.

          Son of Ahmed Pasha Tousoum, and nephew of Mehemet Ali *, born in Jeddah (Saudi Arabia) in 1813
. Nephew and successor of Ibrahim Pasha* which he succeeded on his death on November 10, 1848. He become Viceroy of Egypt's November 10 November 1848 to 13 July 1854. Conservative, he opposed the modernization of Egypt and the European advisers hunting his uncle Ibrahim whom he succeeded in 1884. It combines Ottoman forces in the Crimean War between Russia and France coalition-Britain, Sardinia and Turkey from 1854 to 1855. He died, strangled by two of his servants to Bahna near Cairo on July 13, 1854.

The Emperor Theodoros Kassa Hailu, son of Hailu Wolde-Guiorguis, born about 1818 in Metraha on the shores of Lake Tana. On February 8, 1855, he seized power and was crowned in Darasgué Negast Negus (King of Kings) under the name of the mythical emperor of the golden age Theodoros II, successor of David I by the Abuna Salama (patriarch of the Coptic Church). Britain annoyed by his brutality decides to send in an impressive body Expeditionary Ethiopia from India comprising 32,000 men including 4,000 Europeans, 16,000 combatants (Turks, Sikhs, Persians, Egyptians), 70 warships, three ships hospitals, 31,500 pack animals or war including 44 elephants. Not to be taken alive, he committed suicide with a pistol in his fortified palace stormed of Magdala on  April 13, 1868.

Tolbert William Emmett Richard, president of Liberia.

         Born on  May 13, 1913
in Bensonville (act. Bentol City) in Montserrado County. After his primary education at Bensonville, was admitted to the college of Protestant missionaries Episcopalians Crummell Hall in Clay Ashland and college Liberia (now University of Liberia), where he graduated in 1934. In 1952, he received his doctorate in law from the University of Liberia. He began his career as a secretary in the Ministry of Finance in 1935, before climbing the ranks of the public service. In 1943, he was elected in Montserrado County. Pastor of the Baptist Church, Doctor of Laws, former president of the Baptist World Alliance (1965-1970), he is also Grand Master of the Masonic lodge in Africa. Vice-President, he succeeded as President of Liberia to William Tubman, who died in July 1971. In 1973, he escaped to the first coup fomented by the Deputy Minister of Defence, Prince Kroo, N.A. Browne (sentenced to death and executed immediately). In foreign policy, in 1973, Liberia severed diplomatic relations with Israel, builds relationships with the U.S.S.R. and receives in 1975 in Monrovia, Prime Minister of South Africa, Balthazar Johannes Vorster. He was elected in 1975. He creates a fund to assist liberation movements of southern Africa. In 1978, he received the visit of U.S. President, Jimmy Carter. After his visit to France in 1979, Liberia was invited to the Franco-African summit in Kigali in May of the same year. Reelected in July 1979, he organized in Monrovia fourteenth summit of heads of states of the Organization of African Unity (O.A.U.). On April 12, 1980, he was overthrown and murdered in his apartment in Monrovia with his family on the orders of Sergeant Samuel Kanyon Doe. Thirteen of his ministers and close are executed to beach of Monrovia. The images of the execution are broadcast by television ten days later. His assassination is seen as a humiliation throughout Africa, because he is the first chairman of the O.A.U. to be overthrown and killed in his office. Until his overthrow and his horrible murder on September 10, 1990, his killer and successor, President Samuel Kanyon Doe, had never been accepted by his African peers, because of this barbaric coup.

Ruben Um Nyobe, Independence hero of Cameroon.

on September 13, 1913 at Song Mpeck near Boumnyébel (in the region of the Sanaga-Maritime). From 1920, he studied at the Presbyterian mission of Makai. He was baptized and received the name of Ruben. After his primary schooling Eseka, he passed his school certificate in 1929 and continued his secondary education at the Normal School of Teachers of Foulassi (near Sangmélima). He began his career as a certified instructor in the Presbyterian schoolof Edea until 1935. He obtained a bachelor party in 1939 and managed the support of committed civil and financial services. He was appointed finance director in Yaoundé and the Court Clerk committed at Edea and Ngaoundéré. He militates in the French Cameroonian Youth (JEU.CA.FR.A.) launched in 1938, by the French High Commissioner Richard Brunot and chaired by Paul Soppo-Priso*. He becomes unionist  in 1945 and 1947, he was elected Secretary General of the Union of Trade Unions of Cameroon Confederate (U.S.C.C.). On 10 April 1948, he founded at Douala with Felix Moumie* , and Abel Kingué*  Ernest Ouandié*, the Union of Populations of Cameroon (U.P.C.), a branch of the African Democratic Rally (Rassemblement Démocratique Africain -R.D.A.) located mainly in countries Bassa and Bamileké. In June 1949, he was laid off. In 1950, his party claims the unification and independence of Cameroon. He appears three times (1952, 1953 and 1954) before the Fourth Committee of the United Nations in New York. Returned from China in 1953, Félix Moumié,become radical member of U.P.C.. He is removed from his administrative duties in 1954. On 15th May 1955, he joined the resistance and prepares his revolution. On April 22, 1955, trade unions and politicians close to U.P.C. publicly demanding the end of French rule in Cameroon on  December 13, 1956 at the latest. From 22 to 3 May 1955, he foments revolts in Bafoussam, at Ngambé in Douala and Yaounde to N'kongsamba. The results of these riots are heavy: 25 dead and 357 arrests. He becomes a marked man for the French colonial administration. On July 13, 1955, the U.P. is excluded from R.D.A. then prohibited. Underground, U.P.C. created its armed wing: the National Organizing Committee (N.O.C.). In the bush, he wrote political texts published for the Opinion in Cameroon, the journal of Dr. Marcel Bebey-Eyidi.Betrayed by his adviser Theodore Mayi Matip*, he was captured and shot by a French-Chad-Cameroon patrol on  September 13, 1957. His successor Félix-Roland Moumié himelf is poisoned by a French secret agent in Geneva in November 1960 and his friend Ernest Ouandié  between underground. Less than two years after his death on 1 January 1960, the French Cameroon became independent before the English Cameroon which became independent in October 1960. In February 1960 the U.P.C. is restored by President Ahmadou Ahidjo*, but its founder is prohibited quote and hidden memory. Yet he is considered by many Cameroonians as a symbol of national claim and his supporters as a true "Hero Martyr" of the independence of Cameroon.

Prince Rwagasore Louis, Independence leader of Burundi, Eldest son of Mwami Mwambutsa Bagiricenge IV born on January 10, 1932 was assassinated on October 13, 1961 after forming the self-government by a Greek national, Jean Karageorgis (executed on June 30, 1961, on the eve of the independence of Burundi). This murder was sponsored by the Belgian colonial authorities unhappy with the election results and the support that Rwagasore and U.PRO.NA. brought to Lumumbists and Mouvement National Congolais (M.N.C.).

Sylvanus Olympio, the first Togo president have been killed on 13 January 1963 by Etienne Gnassingbe Eyadema (1935-2005), former infantryman, promoted by France.

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