mercredi 2 avril 2014

Forgotten Africans heroes and the medical exploits of the heart .



Dr Daniel Hale Williams, and the first open-heart surgery.

         Born on January 18, 1856 at Hollidaysburg in Pennsylvania, Williams was admitted to the Chicago Medical College (now the Nortwestern) after his training period in the clinic of Dr. Henry Palmer, renowned surgeon at Janesville. He opened his private clinic upon his graduation in 1883, becoming the first black surgeon in Illinois. And in 1893, he left his mark, when a dare surgery operation ever done before, drawing on the work of the French doctor Louis Pasteur and the British Dr Joseph Lister on antisepsis and asepsis. To save James Comish, a young stabbed in the chest during a brawl, Dr. Williams opened the chest of the patient, sews the pericardium and the heart suture. First open heart surgery has been well practiced. "Sewed Up His Heart", as the newspaper Chicago Daily Inter-Ocean. James Cornish does not fare too badly, since he will live up to 50 years. As Dr Williams sees after his feat, many physicians join the ranks of students who attended his surgery.

First Black chief of surgeon in Washington.


         First Black to hold the position of chief surgeon at Freedman's Hospital in Washington DC, Dr. Williams founded in 1891, with the support of whites and other Blacks to his cause, the first multiracial hospital in Chicago: The Provident hosipital, which allows him to accommodate quotas of Black girls wishing to conduct internships nurses. Only Black member of the College of Surgeons in 1913, he founded the National Medical Association, of which, he became vice- president until 1925. He did not forget his humble origins and less actively involved in social work. He was also very influential member of the Equal Rights League. He is considered as a leading authority in the field of science. Philanthropist, he bequeathed to his death on August 4, 1931, his library at Mercy Hospital of Philadelphia and money to various institutions, such as Y.W.C.A,, Meharry and Howard Medical Schools, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (N.A.A.C.P. ) founded by the University panaficanist African-American W.E.B. Du Bois in 1909, who lived his last years and died on August 27, 1963 at Accra (Ghana).

A Black electronics invented the pacemaker

         If today many people can breathe properly, it is because they wear a small electronic gem in their chest: the regulator pacemaker "artificial heart pacemaker
", but most of these carriers do not know that this device was invented by the African-American Otis Frank Boykin. Not even the first carrier of the pacemaker, the Swedish Arne Larsson (1915-2001), the first carrier in his chest of the machine from October 8, 1958 , implanted by Dr. Ake Senning, head of the department of surgery at the University Hospital of Zürich in Switerland.

 Otis Frank Boykin, the black inventor of the Heart Pacemaker.

         Otis Frank Boykin, born on August 29, 1920 in Dallas, Texas. His mother Sarah is a maid and his father Walter, a carpenter, became pastor. Otis graduated from Booker T. Washington High School in Dallas in 1938. He completed his university studies at Fisk University with a scholarship then a salary of an assistant of Laboratory at the Technological Institute of Illinois. But for unknown reasons, he does not get his degree in electronic engineering. He was hired as assistant nevertheless by Dr. Hal F. Fruth, engineer and inventor who had noticed his intelligence. He created more than twenty-five electronic inventions including: electrical resistance for computer, radio and television and especially a must for all guided missiles electronic device.

The fatal fate of tinkerers heart,

         He also develops the control unit for the heart he calls "Artificial heart pacemaker", essentially to regularize the heart beat through electrical impulses. The poor Boykin unfortunately succumb to an acute heart attack at age 62 on March 13, 1982. No one alongside him to place his pacemaker, which had saved Arne Senning in 1958.
By a curious stroke of fate, Dr Christiaan Neethling Barnard, Afrikaner was also heart attack victim, made ​​famous in the world by his Heart Transplant luminary, on which he published over 30 books.

Barnard Christiaan Neethling, the african legend of the human heart transplant

         Born on November 8, 1922 in Beaufort, West Cape to a pastor of the Dutch Reformed Church and a mother Afrikaner Puritan. He studied medicine at the University of Cape Town. Doctor in Medicine and Surgery in 1946, he was hired at the hospital Groote Schurr. In 1955, he specializes in cardiology with Professor Harding Wangensteen at the University of Minneapolis in the United States. This is where he made his first heart operation that ends with the death of the patient. In 1958, he returned to South Africa and work with other researchers in immunology and cardiac transplantation.
         On December 3, 1967, he performed the first heart transplant in History on Louis Washkansky (55) at Groote Schuur Hospital in Cape Town. The operation was a success but the patient died eighteen days later as a result of a lung infection.
         On January 2, 1968, he tried a new heart transplant anti-rejection treatment with streamlined to avoid postoperative infection. It is a success. Transplant live eighteen months. Barnard became a superstar of Medicine received by the highest international personalities.

Promoted by the Apartheid government of South Africa

         The apartheid government of South Africa considers very democratic advantage of his fame to promote its image in the world. In 1974, he tries to put a second heart bypass in a patient's chest. In 1978, he created a new feat by transplanting the heart of a baboon into the chest of a man. Naturalized Greek in 1991, he has subsequently to the Cellular Therapy Clinic "La Prairie" in Montreux-Clarens (Switzerland).
         We do not therefore expect more talk about him in Who's Who multiplying the amorous adventures. On September 2, 2001, by a curious twist of fate, that the world press brocarda once as "the surgeon with golden fingers" or  "the legend of the human heart transplant" is overcome by an acute heart attack in a hotel at Cyprus.
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-They Shaped Our Century: The Most Influential South Africans of the Twentiety Century. Human & Rousseau. 1999.
-Yves Antoine, Inventeurs et savants noirs, L’Harmattan, Paris, 2012.
-Kanyarwunga I.N. Jean, Biographical Dictionary of Africans (French version) online www. NENA. Sen.

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