vendredi 19 décembre 2014

Angola: Jonas Savimbi was he to the edge of madness, when he was killed on February 22, 2002 ?

 
Whimsical, mischievous and crazy.

         "Jonas Savimbi was moody, Machiavellian and showed signs of madness",
says Emidio Fernando to Afriqu'Echos Magazine (A.E.M.) of March 12, 2012.
         This is what emerges from his book "Jonas Savimbi, the reverse of history"
days by days to 10 years after his death.
         In his book the Angolan journalist describes his boundless ambition. "The only real ambition of this man becoming president of Angola"

Jonas Savimbi: Angel or demon?


         No consensual answer has been given to these questions. For some, the founder of the U.N.I.T.A. was a great man, but for others, he was almost a devil.
         The Portuguese journalist Fernando Emidio has many facets in his book: "Jonas Savimbi: Behind the history,"
published 10 years after his death. This book clearly shows that "the one true ambition of this man was to become president". He always had an inordinate ambition, and this from the beginning. In short, since 1960, he had approached the M.P.L.A. but said he wanted to be the vice president of the movement, because he already knew Agostinho Neto was a charismatic leader.  After being rejected by the M.P.L.A., he will integrate the U.P.A., then the F.N.L.A., which he will hold the post of foreign minister in exile.
         In fact, he will use the F.N.L.A., from his address book and money of this movement to found U.N.I.T.A.. And he creates this movement in his thoughts, plans and strategies are his and the branch military U.N.I.T.A. is created by him.
         From there, he is undoubtedly the President of U.N.I.T.A., because that's what everyone thinks, and because he is the best educated person in the movement, but because he requires that this be so, and he will teach it over the years.

He Killed his comrades to stay on top of U.N.I.T.A..


         In the 60s, feeling threatened by management, he kills the leaders who founded U.N.I.T.A. in the eighties, he repeats the same operation, he kills a figurehead, Tito Chinguje Bailundo outcome of a family very considered in Angola, only in order to retain power in U.N.I.T.A..
         Then, dreaming of becoming president of Angola, he will sign an agreement with the Portuguese colonial rule before independence, under which, he reveals troop movements of M.P.L.A. plans and rallies Portuguese troops to fight this liberation movement; he signed a pact with the Portuguese troops with the promise to become governor of the province of Moxico, before realizing that Portugal never respected the agreement and finally decided to break it.
         And then in the eighties, he says he wants a multiparty system, because simply, he looks outside support, but in fact he does not really no such intention. Since he went to the elections with one thing in mind, to become president, he did not accept the idea of power sharing, there is gone weapon in hand in the election, hence its failure.

His death was the second Independence of Angola!

         In a word, he was moody, totally Machiavellian, with some visible signs of madness in various actions and extremely ambitious. At his death, Angola has been at peace, it was his second independence from Portugal torn independence on November 11, 1975.

Who was really Jonas Malheiro Savimbi Sidonio Sakaita?

         Son of the pastor and station master, Lot Malheiro and Helena Mbundu Sakatu,  Jonas Malheiro Sidonio Sakaita was born in Munhango near Luso in Bie province on August 3, 1934. In 1955, he attended high school at Marist Brothers College of Silva Bie-Porto, under protection of the brother Cordeiro. On May 18 1958, thanks to a scholarship granted by the United Church of Christ, he went to Portugal to continue his secondary education at the Lycée Passos Manuel of Lisbon followed by two years of medical school. In October 1959, he became a member of the Movement for the Independence of Portuguese Colonies and met Agostinho Neto. In February 1960, he enrolled at the Institute of Social Sciences of the Faculty of Law in Lausanne, Switzerland.

His policy would have shocked dormant outside Africa.

         In 1961, he joined the People's Union Angola (U.P.A.) ancestor of the National Front for the Liberation of Angola (F.N.L.A.) of Holden Roberto and became foreign secretary of the Angolan revolutionary government in exile (G.R.A.E.) chaired by Holden Roberto.
         He resigned on July 6, 1964 and went to finish his studies in law and political science at the University of Lausanne, Switzerland. The following year, he made a military training course in China. On March 13, 1966, he creates at Muangaï (east of Angola), the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (U.N.I.T.A.) with ten of his colleagues in the Nanjing Military Academy (China).
         On December 25, 1966, the U.N.I.T.A. began his guerrillas attacking the Benguela railway in Souza Texeira (current Luau) on the Congolese border. He settled in Zambia, where opponents of President Kenneth Kaunda help him to infiltrate in Angola.

The African leaders are wary of him, but not enough!

         His movement is not recognized by the Organization of African Unity (O.A.U.), despite the support of African leaders such as Gamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt, Ahmed Ben Bella of Algeria, Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana, Ahmed Sekou Toure of Guinea and Jomo Kenyatta of Kenya.
         In March 1967, when the guerrillas of U.N.I.T.A. derail a Zambian train, he was arrested by the Zambian police returning from Cairo, and deported on the same flight to Egypt, where he remained in exile for a year.

Traitor and felon when it suits!

        
In 1968, he collaborated with the Portuguese political police (P.I.D.E.) to fight their common enemy the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (M.P.L.A.) of Dr. Agostinho Neto and the National Liberation Front of Angola (F.N.L.A.) of Holden Roberto. Upon accession of Angola to independence on November 11, 1975, U.N.I.T.A. leaves the national coalition government. He proclaims in Huambo with the leader of the F.N.L.A., Holden Roberto, the Democratic Republic of Angola that is not recognized by the O.A.U..
         In January-February 1976, he declared war against the M.P.L.A.. With the help of China, France, Zaire (Congo-Kinshasa), the United States and South Africa, he conquers the 3/4 of the country and led the war for many years.

He only signed peace agreements that suits him!


         He agreed to sign the peace agreement in Estoril on May 30, 1991, because he feels the strongest militarily. On 29 and 30 September 1992, he lost the presidential election supervised by the United Nations and many international observers.
         He refuses defeat and immediately resumed the war to the Luanda agreement on November 20 1994. On September 15, 1993, Resolution 864 of the U.N. imposes an embargo on arms and fuel for U.N.I.T.A.. On November 20, 1994, the Lusaka Protocol officially ends the civil war in Angola (500,000 dead, 4 million displaced and 100,000 maimed in a population of 12 million people).
         On February 8, 1995, the O.N.U. send a peacekeeping mission of peace U.N.A.V.E.M. III contribute to the implementation of the Lusaka Protocol. On June 30, 1997, O.N.U. creating the United Nations Observer Mission in Angola (M.O.N.U.A.) responsible for observing the cease-fire that does not comply with U.N.I.T.A..
         On October 29, 1997, the U.N. .General Assembly voted additional sanctions against U.N.I.T.A. which refuses to take part in the Government of Unity and National Reconciliation (G.U.R.N.). : Ban on leaving the country for its leaders, closing its offices abroad.. When U.N.I.T.A. is recognized as a political party by the government of José Eduardo dos Santos on March 11, 1998, Savimbi qualifies traitors, dissidents of U.N.I.T.A. Renovated created on September 2, 1998, that pact with the power to Luanda.

The power or the war to the death!


         In December 1998, he resumed the war against the government of Luanda, rejecting the Lusaka peace plan. Yet U.N.I.T.A. had seven ministers in the government in Luanda and 70 Members of the Angolan Parliament has 222 deputies. On December 2, 1999, the government broke any dialogue with U.N.I.T.A. and Parliament cancels the special status of Jonas Savimbi as the national army (F.A.A.) is launching a general offensive against his rebellious.
         On July 24, 2000, an international arrest warrant was issued against him for "armed rebellion crimes, sabotage and assassinations".
In November 1999, when U.N.I.T.A. troops are crushed by the Angolan Armed Forces (F.A.A.) and they lose their strongholds of Bailundo and Andulo, Savimbi driven from his reinforcements in the nature reserve of Luando in northeast of the province of Malanje.
         On 30 November 30, 2000, he denies the general amnesty law for him and his men. On August 21, 2001, the Angolan government wants to try him by an international court for "crimes against humanity"
. He was killed in a clash between the last residue of U.N.I.T.A. and the Angolan Armed Forces (F.A.A.), on February 22, 2002 at Luvuei in Moxico province.
         He was buried in Lucusse after his bullet-riddled body was exposed to the international press.
         On March 14, 2002, the Angolan government declares a unilateral cease-fire, and on April 4, 2002, the final peace agreement was signed in Luanda by the Secretary-General of U.N.I.T.A., Lukamba Paulo Gato and the President José Eduardo dos Santos in the presence of the international community, ending one of the bloodiest of the longest civil war and the deadliest of Southern Africa.

References:
-Marco Vinicius, Maria Joao Saldanha, Jonas Savimbi: um Desafio to Ditadura Comunista em Angola (Savimbi: a challenge to the Communist dictatorship in Angola),
Edições Armasilde, 1977.
-Breytenbach Cloete, Savimbi's Angola
, Littlehampton Book Services Ltd, 1984.
-Bridgland Fred, Jonas Savimbi: A Key to Africa
, Mainstream Publishing, 1987.
-Loiseau Yves, De Roux Jean-Guillaume, Portrait of a revolutionary general Jonas Savimbi
, Editions La Table Ronde, 1987.
-Minter William (ed.), Operation Timber: Pages from the Savimbi file
Africa World Press, Trenton / NJ., 1988.
-Conchiglia Augusta, U.N.I.T.A., myth and reality
E.C.A.S.A.A.M.A. / U.K., 1990.
-Kalflèche Jean-Marc,  Jonas Savimbi: another way for Africa
, Criterion, Paris, 1992.
-Wright George, The Destruction of a Nation: United States Policy Towards Angola Since 1945,
Pluto Press, 1997.
-Maier Karl, Angola: Promises and Lies
, Serif, 2007.
-Fernando Emidio, Jonas Savimbi No lado da História errado (Jonas Savimbi the wrong side of history),
Leya, 2012.

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