mardi 6 janvier 2015

Mexico / U.S.A.: Barack Obama is not the first black American president!

 
A lot of people thinks Barack Obama is the first black American president! This is false because the first black american president is Vicente Ramon Guerrero Saldana. He is the second president of Mexico in 1829. If we integrate the Caribbean to North America, the first black head of state would be indeed the Governor-General of the independent Republic of Haiti: Jacques Dessalines in 1804. But this is another story.

Who was Vicente Ramón Guerrero Saldaña, nicknamed "el Negro Guerrero (Black Warrior)"?

        
54 years before Abraham Lincoln (1809-1865) signs the Emancipation Proclamation on January 1, 1863, Vicente Guerrero remains in American remembered for having abolished slavery in Mexico. The one his political enemies call him "el Negro Guerrero" was cataloged mulatto if he was from the United States.
        
According to biographer Theodore G. Vincent, Guerrero had African ancestors, Spanish and American Indians. His African branch coming from the direction of his father, Juan Pedro, who held "the profession of muleteer almost exclusively for Afro-Mexicans". His grandfather was a slave or while descending from African slaves from the kingdom of Kongo.
        
He was born on August 10, 1782 at Tixla (now Tixla Guerrero), near Acapulco. He joined the Mexican fighters struggling to get rid of Spanish rule in 1810 under another black leader, General Maria Morelos Teclo Pérez y Pavon, a Catholic priest who played a leading role in this struggle until his execution on December 22, 1815. as Guerrero, he is considered a national hero and his face adorns the currency note of 50 pesos and a Mexican State bears his name.

Access to the power of big black hero of Mexico.

        
In the year following the death of Morelos, Guerrero became general of the rebels and participated in battles until Mexico gained independence in 1821. He had fought 491 battles undefeated with troops formed the majority of Blacks and Métis. In 1924 and in 1828, he ran for election as President of the Republic. Finally convinced that the elections were rigged before, he and his supporters' revolt against the new government. Guerrero becomes the second president of Mexico on April 1, 1929.

 
Before Abraham Lincoln in the United States, abolitionism cost him his life.

        
On the anniversary of the independence of Mexico, on September 15, 1929, he abolished the slave in the country, prompting many historians to describe Abraham Lincoln of Mexico, while it would be more accurate to qualify Lincoln "Vicente Guerrerro of United States". This is also urged Texans to separate from Mexico in 1836. He decreed slavery and emancipation of all slaves. The Article 3 of the decree provided for compensation of former slave owners to the extent of the means of the government. He had appointed Pedro Ascencio, an Indian native to the rank of General of the Mexican Army at one time or Indians were very low social class.
         He made a brilliant speech on democracy before Abraham Lincoln. He decided to finance a revolt to free the island of Cuba and the Haitian republic.
        
And as Lincoln later, Guerrero paid him dearly: three months after having abolished slavery, he was ousted by a military coup on December 4, 1829. Two years later, he joined the ranks of the rebels fighting the new government. Betrayed to the Minister of War, General Antonio Facio,by a claimed friend, the Genoese Francisco Picaluga against the sum of 50,000 pesos (250,000 gold francs), he was convicted of rebellion on January 15, 1831 in Oaxaca and passed through the weapons at Cuilapanle on February 14, 1831.
        
His hometown was named Tixla Guerrero and his remains rest in the mausoleum located at the base of "El Angel de la Independencia" in Mexico alongside other heroes of independence.
--------------------------
References:
-Vincent Theodore G., Guerrero: The legacy of Vicente Guerrero, Mexico first black president, University of Florida Press, 2001.

Aucun commentaire:

Enregistrer un commentaire