dimanche 28 août 2011

Andrée Blouin: "The Word of Congo" or " Black Pasionaria."

Illegitimate grand-sons of Asterix and Vercingetorix

         To hide their sexual libertine (or the exercise of droit de seigneur), which could impair their prestige, the French and Belgian settlers had built orphanages and schools to educate their offspring as "illegitimate" out of the disapproving eyes of their compatriots coming freshly from Europe.

         Thus were built an orphanage in Brazzaville especially Metis Franco-African (and similar) and wards of French Equatorial Africa, in Butembo for "mulatto" and Belgian-Congolese in Rwanda for Save " mulattoes "Ruanda-Urundi and Kivu.
         These were taught into practice especially technicians "civilized" while reminding them of their origins "Negroes."
         In Congo - Kinshasa where there were 12,000 more or less "Half-Blood" on the eve of independence, they normally enjoy a status of evolution, but their parents were away from blacks at risk losing that status brings it closer to "white".

         As for the girls Metis, they were trained to become housewives or nuns in modern nuns strong character who handled the "whip" as well as the "Capita" on construction sites, in mines or on plantations.

         A statute which created huge complex of "ambivalence" in the "Mindele-Ndombe" or "Mindele-Madeso."

         With independence and the sudden departure of their "parents" they were literally lost. Or, they developed a deep hatred towards the "Whites" who had abandoned and felt more "Negroes" that blacks themselves, a protective condescension towards their black parents.

         To Save, in Rwanda, African mothers saw their children at official ceremonies or through the fence of the convent for the most daring. From 1958 to 1961, 400 young Métis were transferred from Save in Belgium and placed in adoptive families in Brussels, Flanders and Wallonia.

         The missionaries in charge of these "Orphanages" had developed "international marriage agencies of mulatto"
and rejoiced when a "White authentic" fell in love with a mestizo because it meant they had succeeded his education.

A struggle that gave rise to vocations and passions.

         "This struggle was in tears, fire and blood, we are proud of the depths of ourselves, because it was a noble and just struggle, a struggle necessary to end the humiliating slavery which we was imposed by force. What was our lot in eighty years of colonial rule, our wounds are too fresh and too painful still for us to drive them from our memory. We had work harassing, demanded in return for wages that did not permit us to eat our fill. Neither of us dress or house ourselves decently, or to raise our children as their loved ones. We have known ironies, insults, blows that we had to suffer day and night because we were Negroes. Who will forget that a Black was said "Tu", certainly not as a friend, but because "Vous" Hon was reserved for whites only? ".

         These prophetic words of Patrice Lumumba's speech tore the veil forever opaque covering colonial Africa. As a sword, they would have struck the heart of any young Métis formed in the orphanage for "Young Métis" in Brazzaville or the mission of Save in Rwanda.

Andrée Blouin, born Gerbillat, Métis of Ubangi-Shari

         Daughter of the French adventurer Pierre Gerbillat and Josephine Wouassimba, a woman of the tribe Banziri, born 1st December 1919 in the village of Bessou in Ubangi-Shari (now Central Africa Republic) is separated from her mother at the age of three years and placed as other "Métis" adverse to the orphanage Augouard Brazzaville, the capital of French Equatorial Africa (AOF). The harsh conditions of his training in the orphanage make him aware of his "African status".

         It is still pubescent when she has been married to the French Groetz. Too beautiful, too smart, too independent, so rebellious! The kind of woman who does not fit a macho colon. The divorce was quickly delivered!

         She married the engineer André Blouin, Polytechnic which led him to Guinea for the first time in 1953. She becomes friends with another mestizo, the Guinean Marie-Andrée Kourouma, daughter of Dr. Paul-Marie Duplantier and Kaïssa Kourouma. Former secretary of the Association of Women, she married the fiery trade unionist Muslim Ahmed Sekou Toure, after braving all banned June 18, 1953.

         To have more independence, she opened a shop of African objects at Conakry. Ahmed Sekou Toure, admire his intelligence and eloquence that they share. She feels for him an unwavering admiration. Did she provided him advice and drafted some of his passionate speeches?

The Madame Du Barry Congo of Dag Hammarskjöld

         In November 1959, she met Pierre Mulele passing in Conakry who invited him to Leopoldville despite opposition from his fellow Raphael Kinki of African Socialist Party (PSA) and Antoine Kingotolo of the Bakongo Alliance (ABAKO). She exerts "Communist" influence  on Antoine Gizenga and Pierre Mulele, who contact the Belgian colonial administration for his removal.

         On May 31, 1960, the polls confirm access to the power of Patrice Lumumba. Aware of the price of independence, Sekou Toure, sees the fragility of the Congolese nationalist. He decided to send two special advisors: Dr. Felix Moumie Roland, president of the Union of the Populations of Cameroon (UPC) chased by the French secret service he named head of the mission in Leopoldville and his Guinean secret weapon "Ms. Andrée Blouin. "

         She participates in the election of Antoine Gizenga and traveled with him to Kwilu alongside Peter Gabriel and Mulele Yumbu of Socialist African Party (PSA).

         She writes speeches for him including speech of July 30, 1960 at a reception given in honor of UN Secretary-General, Dag Hammarskjold during his visit to Kinshasa.

         The Swedish diplomat who does not appreciate, called her with  the nickname of "Madame Du Barry of Congo", the favorite of King Louis XV, guillotined during the French Revolution.

"The Word of Congo" or irritates galvanizes his listeners.

         Accomplished speaker, very good at the local languages ​​and with a common energy out of it galvanized the crowd. Always elegant, she is hated and jealousy as Africans than Europeans. In June 1960, she became a columnist on the radio Congolese where it is called "The Word of Congo."
         Indeed, with his warm voice and vibrant, she communicates her faith to the masses.

         Was she alongside Patrice Lumumba and Thomas Kanza when they writed the correcting speech "Blasphemous" of June 30, 1930?

         Lumumba had not he asked his adviser Belgian Pierre Duvivier him to write an essay "on how Guinean"?

         In July 1960 she was appointed Chief of Protocol of Prime Minister Patrice Emery Lumumba, a position difficult to accept because as she said, her office was a veritable "Tower of Babel" where are scrambling Europeans, Africans, adventurous, passionate, single skinned alive and excited.

         When Patrice Lumumba was brutally murdered in Katanga January 17, 1961, the dream of Andrée Blouin was definitely broken.

         October 14, 1960, she was expelled from the Congo (along with Dr. Felix Moumie) on personal orders of President Joseph Kasavubu.          She took refuge in Switzerland where she escapes two attempted murders. In Paris, where she moved, she continues to denounce the neo-colonialist policy plaguing Africa.

         April 4, 1965, the headlines with a legal complaint against the news agency "Opera Mundi" by Hungarian Peter Winkler. The agency had just published his adventures in the Congo on the basis of his talks with two Belgian journalists without prior agreement!

         In 1981, Jean MacKellar, published by Praeger in New York in English: "My Country, Africa: Autobiography of the Black Pasionaria"
based on conversations she had with him in Paris and Conakry in 1970 and 1980.

         Conakry remain her base until the death of his mentor Sekou Toure in March 1984. Having rejected the words and political actions that are described (judging exceeded) in the book by Jean MacKellar, presented as her autobiography, she died in Paris in complete anonymity in April 1986.

         After her death, the "black pasionaria" disappears from public life and become a legend and be reborn in the guise of Fragonard Simone, aka Kolelas, the main character of the Congolese Henri Lopes “The Lys and flamboyant.”

         "I never knew who I was, and I always knew that I was not (...) In these circumstances it is even harder not to get caught by the masses and seek its way into a world where everything is unstable equilibrium, doubts, loyalties random quicksand where identity is lost in oceans of uncertainty where consciousness is drowning. "

4 commentaires:

  1. Dear Mr Kanyarwunga,
    I was very pleased to read your blog and appreciated the clarity of your views and opinions. I am currently writing a book in which madame Andrée
    Blouin has a prominent role ... as she is my mother. It would be a great honor to share with you the knowledge that you have for the history of Central Africa and therefore the world. Vous pouvez me contacter sur facebook, mon nom est Eve Blouin. Avec mes sincères remerciements, E.B.

    1. Chère Mme Eve Blouin,

      la personnalité de votre maman m'a tellement impressionné et touché que j'ai décidé de mettre sa biographie dans mon "Dictionnaire biographique des Africains qui vient de paraître aux Editions Le Cri à Bruxelles. Pour l'obtenir, veuillez m'envoyer votre adresse e-mail.

      A bientôt,



  2. Cher Monsieur Kanyarwunga,
    C'est un honneur que de savoir la mémoire de ma mère perpétrée par l'admiration que vous lui portez. Mon adresse email est evebloiun1@gmail.com
    Veuillez excuser le retard à vous répondre. Eve Blouin.

  3. Cher Monsieur Kanyarwunga,

    Je viens de recevoir vos livres! Je suis agréablement surprise de constater l'efficacité des postes suisses mais surtout votre célérité. Mais avant toutes choses, mes félicitations pour votre travail colossal, vos oeuvres sont le chaînon manquant de l'histoire de notre continent si méconnu et aux à priori tenaces. "Les générations condamnées" est captivant, je viens de l'ouvrir sur une page au hasard qui parlait de Houari Boumedienne que nous connaissions bien lorsque nous habitions en Algérie. La lecture est aisée, j'imagine donc le travail que cela vous a suscité, je renouvelle donc mes félicitations.
    Le "Dictionnaire biographiques des Africains" est incroyable, phénoménal.
    Et puis voir le nom de maman dans votre dictionnaire m'a donné du baume au coeur et la conviction que l'histoire africaine sera mieux comprise si elle est racontée avec une perspective mondiale.
    Encore merci.
    Tous mes remerciements les meilleurs,

    Eve Blouin.