jeudi 23 janvier 2014

Zambia/Zimbabwe/Botswana: These insults worth prison to their authors!

Zambia: Do not treat the president Michael Sata of  "potato"!

         An opposition leader was jailed in Zambia after treated on radio President Sata of "potato" . The Global Post lists the insults that have recently targeted heads of state of Southern Africa. Their authors have undergone various fate.
         In Zambia, to treat the president of "potato" can cost you. Of "potato", yes. This qualifier, seemingly harmless, was used in January 2014 at the radio by a leader of the opposition to describe the Zambian president, Michael Sata, which earned its author landed in prison for defamation of character. If convicted, Frank Bwalya faces a maximum sentence of five years imprisonment.
         Comparing the Zambian President to tuber, Frank Bwalya was referring to the term "Chumbu mushololwa"
which means in Bemba langage “sweet potato that breaks under pressure”. The formula applies to stubborn and inflexible individuals who do not listen to the opinions of others.
         Bwalya supporters believe it is not an insult but rather "a description perfectly legitimate to speak of a politician actually stubborn by nature."
Anyway, the word seems more appropriate in the case of President Sata, deemed not to have his tongue in his pocket and whose autocratic style has grown stronger since his election in 2011.

Zimbabwe, Thou hast well said "lame ass "?

         Zimbabwe, dozens of complaints have been filed in recent years within the framework of the law criminalizing insults to the president Gabriel Mugabe. This law is often used to harass and intimidate critics of President Robert Mugabe, who turns 90 next month.
         Accused of having compared the president to a "lame ass", the opposition activist, Solomon Madzore, was arrested last May. In the Shona language, the term "dhongi rinokamina"
refers to an old draft animals without useless and need to retire.
         In November 2013, a court in Zimbabwe found that "anti- insult law" unconstitutional and said that prosecutors should not be overzealous in indicting people who commented on President Mugabe " in a social context or alcoholic". Several local sources indicate, however, that the law is still applied.

Botswana: Looking like a "Bushman", what horror?

         In 2009, a border post in Botswana, a South African tourist notifying the portrait of the President of Botswana, Seretse Ian Khama
said he "looked like a Bushman". And the situation quickly turned sour. Interrogated and forced to spend a night in jail, the woman was released after paying a fine.
         The Bushmen - also known as San or Khoi are an indigenous people of southern Africa. Some still live according to the traditional way of life of hunter-gatherers. They are victims of discrimination and persecution in Botswana and President Ian Khama called their lifestyle "archaic fantasy".

         "For a South African, that someone looks like a Bushman is a compliment, but the Botswana officials saw an insult",
said after the incident the director of Survival International, an organization defending the rights of natives. "There is no better evidence of racism against the Bushmen in Botswana".

South Africa: Tjajarag, Monster or Tyrant,
Jacob Zuma does not cares!

         In South Africa, no insult will take you to jail. President Jacob Zuma has been called a "monster", the "tyrant" of  "illiterate" and many other things. King Aba Thembu has even called him a "liar who do not use condoms"
. Zuma is also not to be outdone, also dealt with the leader of the parliamentary opposition "Ntombazana" or " little girl" in Zulu.
         One of the most beautiful names of birds traded in South Africa, however, some years back when Julius Molema, former head of the youth league of the A.N.C. (African National Congress) has dealt with a B.B.C. of  "tjajarag". It may not be the easiest word to pronounce, but it is useful to talk about someone irritant in the genre excited or hyperactive. It is pronounced roughly like this: cha-cha-ch-raa.
Keep it in a corner of your head.
*Published in Global Post, by Erin Conway-Smith.

vendredi 17 janvier 2014

Eritrea: A horrible human trafficking in our eyes!!*

         Eritrean youths are being kidnapped by senior military officers, smuggled into Sudan and held to ransom, according to a report by Dutch and Swedish researchers. The captives are threatened with being sold to people traffickers if they do not raise tens of thousands of dollars. Some are freed if they raise the ransoms. Others are sold on to Bedouin traffickers in Sinai, even after money has changed hands, only to be tortured to extract further cash from their relatives.
         Basing their findings on interviews with 230 Eritreans who suffered this fate, the researchers conclude that between 2007 and 2012, some 25,000 to 30,000 people were trafficked. The report, by Meron Estefanos, a Swedish human rights activist, and Professor Mirjam van Reisen and Dr Conny Rijken of Tilburg University in the Netherlands, estimates that $600m has been extracted in this way.

Eritrea's military is trafficking the nation's children.

         In the report, The Human Trafficking Cycle: Sinai and Beyond, published on Wednesday, researchers accuse Eritrea's Border Surveillance Unit, under the command of General Teklai Kifle (alias Manjus), of being at the heart of these operations. The United Nations has named the general and several of his senior officers, as being involved in human trafficking, but this is the first time first-hahe Eritrean government requires every pupil to complete their final year of high school by serving in Sawa Military Camp, in the desolate, semi-desert region of eastern Eritrea.
         This means that most 16- and 17-year old children go there to complete their studies. The study interviewed an Eritrean woman living in Sweden who told them her son was abducted from the camp. He and six other children were forced into a car by a high-ranking Sawa military officer and driven into Sudan. Once there, they were made to call their parents, who were given three days to pay $ 7,500 or they would be sold to traffickers. Eritreans know what such a fate holds in store: imprisonment in underground cells and systematic torture while their screams are played to relatives on mobile phones. Girls are regularly raped, sometimes repeatedly and in public. Until they can pay up, there is little hope of escape.

What is the price of a slave Eritrean today?

         These particular children were lucky. When the money was paid, they were freed in the Sudanese capital, Khartoum. The researchers believe this was not an isolated incident. They quote several reports dated October 2013 indicating that 211 children were kidnapped from the camp and a ransom of $10,000 demanded for each of their release.
         "Some Eritreans are keen to be smuggled out of the country," Van Reisen told the Guardian, "but some of those who are abducted had no intention of leaving Eritrea". She cites the example of a mother of three who explained how she was kidnapped in the Eritrean capital, Asmara.The woman, who cannot be named, says she went to a meeting with a business partner in the city. The next thing she remembers was waking up in the Sudanese border town of Kassala. She, and three other captives, were told that if they didn't pay $10,000 each within a few days, they would be sold to Bedouin traffickers in Sinai. The families of the woman and three men paid the ransom demanded, but instead of being released they were taken to the Sinai, where a further $35,000 was demanded. Eventually some of the hostages were freed, only to be arrested by Egyptian troops. The woman is now reported to be staying in a house in Sinai, waiting to travel to Cairo.

Between 5,000 and 10,000 of the hostages died or were killed in captivity.

         Van Reisen and her colleagues say that many Eritreans do not survive the trafficking and the torture. They estimate that between 5,000 and 10,000 of the hostages died or were killed in captivity. In some groups as many as half lost their lives. Children as young as two or three years old are among the victims. Even after they escape the clutches of the people traffickers, the Eritreans are not safe. In 2012 the Israeli government adopted an anti-infiltration law -using a term normally reserved for Palestinians attempting to enter the country. This definition has been extended to African migrants, and since July 2012 refugees and asylum seekers entering Israel have been detained. A new fence has been built along the Israel-Egyptian border in Sinai, and groups of Eritrean survivors of torture huddle against it, unable to proceed.
*Report of The Guardian published on 12/04/13.

samedi 11 janvier 2014

U.S.A. : Lyndon B. Johnson arranged John F. Kennedy's assassination*.

The Man who killed Kennedy - the case against LBJ

         In his new book, political operative and strategist Roger Stone has claimed that former president Lyndon B. Johnson set up John F. Kennedy's assassination, which occurred on November 22, 1963. A former aide to President Reagan and confidante of Richard Nixon makes the claim in his book 'The Man who killed Kennedy - the case against LBJ.' No one man benefitted more from the assassination than Vice President Johnson, the author claims. He spoke to the Voice of Russia about the book.

For those, who don't know of Lyndon Johnson's personality and demeanor, could you describe why he would be the most logical mastermind behind JFK's assassination?

         I think the reason why he is the most logical murderer of John Kennedy is that in November of 1963, Lyndon Johnson was a man, who was looking into the abyss. He was tangled up in at least two of the major public corruption scandals of the day: the Bobby Baker scandal –Baker was Johnson's right-hand man, who was taking huge bribes on Johnson's behalf in the U.S. Senate and then Billie Sol Estes scandal. Estes was a Texas wheeler dealer businessman, who had got millions of dollars in Federal contracts thanks to Lyndon Johnson. Both of those investigations were coming to a head, both of them pointed to corruption by Johnson, corruption of Biblical proportions. And Johnson knew he was going to be dumped from the ticket and probably sent to prison. So, time was running out for Lyndon Johnson. He knew that Life magazine -a very prominent American magazine at the time -planned a major expose of his financial situation and his corruption.
         A week after the assassination and that the information for the Life magazine article had been sent to them by attorney general Robert Kennedy, who very very much wanted Lyndon Johnson off the national ticket in 1964, so he, Lyndon Johnson is your most likely perpetrator.

You said in your book that Lyndon Johnson's biographer would panic if he's reminded about Wallace. Who was that man and what role did he play in the assassination?

          I believe that Malcolm Wallace, who was a long-time associate and hitman for LBJ is the actual killer, I tie Johnson to at least eight murders in Texas prior to John F. Kennedy. These were murders to cover up corruption, they were murders to cover up voter fraud through theft of elections. Johnson had murder in his repertoire.
         In fact I would go so far as to say that Johnson could order a murder the way you and I would order a sandwich. And it is very important historically to understand that in the immediate aftermath of Kennedy's assassination in order to justify the cover-up to many in the government, in order to get them to go along with the fiction that Lee Harvey Oswald had killed Kennedy, Johnson tried to give the impression that the assassination of John F. Kennedy was done by the Russian State.
         Johnson told this lie repeatedly in order to get people to go along with the cover-up, because you see, if we don't blame Oswald and we don't claim that he is a lone communist acting by himself and people learn that he is really an agent of a foreign government –the Russian government– then it would cause a major national incident, needless to say that's all a lie. In fact the K.G.B. according to declassified documents that we got in 1985 the K.G.B. conducted their own totally independent investigation to determine who killed Kennedy. You know what they determined? They said: it was Lyndon Johnson.

What about French intelligence? I mean, Jackie Kennedy asked the France intelligence to determine who killed her husband. So?...

         Jackie Kennedy couldn't get any satisfaction from U.S. intelligence services; nobody would tell her what was going on. She went to French intelligence, where she had some relationships – you remember Jackie Kennedy was the toast of Paris – and she asked them to conduct an investigation. They did. They published that investigation in book form. It's called "Farewell, America!" by James Hepburn and that investigation also pointed the finger at Vice President Lyndon Johnson.
         Johnson had the unique motive, means, and opportunity to kill. Although he did not act alone. It's very important to understand that Johnson was merely the lynchpin of the conspiracy that I believe involved the C.I.A. – they were upset with J.F.K. over the Bay of Pigs fiasco, involved American organized crime. They had given Kennedy 1 million dollars for his 1960 election and then they have promised to steal votes for him and successfully in Chicago, which they did.
         And in return Bobby Kennedy –The Attorney General, and the President's brother -had launched an all-out attack on organized crime and was trying to deport many of the same mafia figures, who had been instrumental in his own brother's election. So, the mob had the motives. And then, of course, there's big Texas oil. President Kennedy was on the cast of repelling the oil depletion allowance and that would have cost Texas oil literary billions. So, everyone in Dallas on the 22nd of November 1963 had a motive for the murder of John Kennedy.

Could you, please, tell me, how you discovered the evidence that the opaque bubble top was removed and JFK never asked for that and actually Vice Presidential aid Bill Moyers said that he did…

         Moyers is a very prominent American journalist today, but at that time he was on the staff of Vice President Lyndon Johnson. At Love Field he goes to the Secret Service, Moyers goes to the Secret Service and he says – and this is quote: "Get that Goddamn bubble, the President wants that goddam bubble top taken off now.
         "Well, two Kennedy aids testified that the president never gave any such an order about removing the opaque top for the Presidential limousine. Although the bubble-top is not bullet-proof, it would have prevented a gunman from a high building from getting an accurate shot because he would not have been able to see the President. And therefore the question that one must ask mister Moyers is: since the President didn't give that order, was it the Vice-President that gave that order? It certainly sounds like it to me.

And in that case, just out of curiosity: what do you think – did Kennedy know or at least feel about what was going on around him – if so many people were against him?

         We know that he did not want to go to Dallas, we know that he was fighting with Lyndon Johnson, we know that the morning before the motorcade Johnson went to President's Kennedy hotel room and he tried to persuade Kennedy to let governor John Connally who was a Johnson protégé ride in the Vice-president's car and let Senator Ralph Yarborough who was his enemy ride in the President's car – in other words – in the Death car. And the President refused. He didn't like the symbolism of that, he thought the governor should ride with the President. And they then fought, they had an argument, Johnson stormed out of the room. He was merely trying to move his protégé out of dangerous way and he failed.
         But it is important to know that it was Johnson, who insisted on President Kennedy goes to Texas, it was Johnson, who insisted that they take a specific route – they drove through Dealey Plaza – a rout which required secret service to violate all their own procedures in terms of sealing the buildings at both sides of the street. Any time the President's car drops below forty miles per hour – that's supposed to be a requirement – they did it in Houston, they did that in San Antonio the day before, but the buildings weren't sealed in Dallas.
         It's supposed to be 6 motorcycle policemen – three on either side of the President's car: there were in Huston, there were in San Antonio, there were in Chicago the week before, there were in Miami two weeks before, but in Dallas that day there were only two police officers on motorcycles and they were ordered to ride behind the rear bumper of the President's car. There're supposed to be two Secret Service agents on the rear bumper – riding the rear bumper – they were ordered off in Dallas. There supposed to be two Secret Service agents walking on either side of the car, when it drops below 20 miles per hour – they were ordered off. So, there's a lot of anomalies, a lot of violations of standard procedure that are very hard to explain other than say: I believe the U.S. Secret Service also played a role laying down on President Kennedy that day in November.

How did JFK's death affect society, people's minds? Is the impact still present in your opinion?

         I think it certainly changed our policy very dramatically – I think we moved it back into the Cold War. After the death of John F. Kennedy the important conversations between the Russian State and the United States were damaged.
         We know, because it was historically recorded that Nikita Khrushchev wept, when he heard of the death of Kennedy. There was an American journalist who was with Fidel Castro, when he was distraught what he learned: he said over and over again "this is very bad, this is very bad"… I think we were engaged – we were beginning to engage in some fruitful conversations in terms of easing the tensions between our countries and I think there were those in the Pentagon, those in the US military, those in our US-based intelligent services, who were very unhappy about that direction. I think it is a major factor – not the factor, - but a major factor in getting John F. Kennedy killed.
*Stone Roger, The Man Who Killed Kennedy. The Case Against LBJ, with Mike Colapietro, Skyhorse Publishing, U.S.A., 2013.

jeudi 9 janvier 2014

Canada: The revolt of Native Americans against ”hell on earth”*

The Canadian oil sands industry's ambition to accelerate the production, but its infrastructure projects face an obstacle: the Indian peoples inhabiting the remote areas where the deposits.
         Geraldine Thomas lives in British Columbia and, like other Indians of the province, she is ready to give his life to "save succeeding generations from hell on earth".
Like her, 160 aboriginal groups in British Columbia are fighting against the pipeline project Enbridge, that should bring the oil sands of Alberta to Kitimat in northern Britsh Columbia, to export the black gold to Asia.
         "If the water is contaminated by a leak, explains journalist Geraldine CBC  "It's a whole way of life of indigenous people who will disappear".
The chief of the clan belongs Saikuz Geraldine sweeps of hand the participation of 10 % in revenues made ​​their shimmering Enbridge project: "If money accumulates and there is nothing more to eat in nature, it is worth nothing". And the group to announce for 2014 road blockades and acts of civil disobedience.

Loss of wildlife, flora and health risks!

         The Resistance of Native Canadian to oil industry does not manifest itself only in British Columbia. It spreads in all provinces affected by the operating oil sands projects. Indigenous peoples, who comprising some
630 groups in Canada, fear contamination of their rivers with toxic waste that poses a risk to their health and fisheries.          They also fear the loss of wildlife, such as caribou and bison.
This mobilization is not devoid of deterrence, says Radio-Canada, as has already in the past, to stop deforestation. And in this case, Yinka Dene Alliance Native of B.C. is supported by the entire population as well as the mayor of Vancouver, the largest city in Western Canada.

A serious threat to the industry.

         If First Nations dig up the hatchet, the danger is taken seriously, is concerned the website specializing in energy, which as: "Indigenous peoples Canadian threaten $ 600 billion of energy contracts".
Because the courts rule more often in favor of the rights of indigenous peoples in all matters concerning their traditional lands.          According to a recent report by the Fraser Institute, a Canadian think tank conservative and liberal, “each oil or gas project in Western Canada receives at least an indigenous community, and the success of these projects may well depend on the acceptance these communities of energy development". There is a solution, summarizes to negotiate.

Smoking Calumet of peace before digging the Tomahawk!

         As the Canadian government he sent a negotiator with Indian leaders in British Columbia. The lawyer, Douglas Eyford, does not hide the task is daunting. "Relations between Canada and indigenous communities have reached a critical point",
he says in his report after months of consultation with these communities in Alberta and British Columbia.
         He recommends that the government seek to ensure better access to education of Native Americans and training to enable them to take jobs in companies in the energy sector operating on their territories to derive real profits.
         Despite public funding, many indigenous communities still live well below the average standard of living of Canadians, and notes the National Post notes.
         According to a study, the largest differences are in education, habitat quality and access to drinking water as well as social programs, and these differences are mainly due to the geographical distance Indian territories.

Reality principle.

         At 70 kilometers north of Fort McMurray, the "capital" of the oil sands in Alberta, Edmonton Journal believes however to find some balance in the small town of Fort McKay, who is developing strongly related to oil sands.
         "First Nations are struggling to preserve their traditions while taking advantage of the economic boom", writes the newspaper reporting in the region of the Athabasca River in northern Alberta. Long trappers lived comfortably fur trade before this activity is prohibited in the 1980s.
         Today, the community lives mainly oil . "We have long been opposed but eventually we had to acknowledge that there was no other option",
said Chief Jim Boucher, who created a company with eight partners -very successful- the service oil and gas industry.          Today, almost all of the 800 people live in the tar sands. But the nostalgia of old tip in about Jim Boucher. Times when he went into the forest with his grandfather to learn to hunt.
"Until the day, when the oil companies arrived and demolished the forest without asking us. "
-------------------------------------------------- ----------------
*Article by Sabine Grandadam in " Courrier International".

mardi 7 janvier 2014

Africa in the gears of the Great War 1914-1918*

How Africans liberate France.

         Soldiers assigned to the European front, colonial workers sent to metropolis ... Africa paid dearly for its commitment in 1914. Especially since this conflict was also the last colonial partition of Africa.

         Collective memory has almost forgotten. And yet they are nearly 500,000 have been mobilized to combat the heart of European barbarism, to suffer for some of the harshness of the winter of 1917, to discover the horror of trench warfare ... and liberate France. From the First World War, the African infantrymen were largely mobilized by the colonial power. And is again sent to the fronts outside Africa.
         "No other power than France before the war, has not considered calling soldiers colonies, especially blacks, dominated therefore, to fight on the battlefields of Europe against European nations belonging to the dominant white" Marc Michel analysis in his last test, Africa in the gears of the Great War (Karthala).

Recruitment is strength, in appalling conditions!

         "Overall, establishes the French historian, Africa provides the war machine of France three quarters of soldiers mobilized in its empire, 170,000 Blacks of West African-French (A.O.F.) and the French Equatorial Africa (A.E.F.), more than 172,000 Algerian Muslims, nearly 100,000 Runisiens and Moroccans, 40,000 Malagasy.
         "Most of the time, recruitment is strength, in appalling conditions" variant of pure stress, with raids and real manhunts in some circles, particularly in the Ivory Coast just "pacified" persuasion remunerated, enhanced bonuses, via canton chiefs . "Anyway", it was [...] levies a scale and brutality as they could evoke the ignoble slave trade " , not without raising resistance, such as Madagascar, Algeria or in the region of the West Volta (now Burkina Faso).

Rare African survivors will be removed or neutered!

         This is the introduction of the famous "Dark force", wanted by Charles Mangin, since the publication of his book in 1910, called to sub-Saharan Africa tank of French power. Worrying the Germans, who, long before the occupation of the Rhineland in 1919, including the Tenth Army commanded by Mangin, develops racist propaganda.          "We denounced the "Barbarity" of France, not because it would be exercised against Blacks ... but because it dared to fight Whites by Blacks" notes Marc Michel. During the Great War, this fear is operated by France, which has sometimes "Power shock of Black soldiers", as in April 1917, when the Sixth Army sends Mangin at Chemin des Dames (Aisne) - for "save to the extent possible, the French blood", some will say. Fighting and climatic conditions are such that 45 % of staff under General called thereafter the butcher will be affected Blacks, 22% killed or missing.

Germany is humiliated to be beaten by African soldiers!

         Humiliation of being beaten and occupied by African soldiers, Germany nourish a strong resentment against France, which imposes this "Black shame
" which will be "recovered by the National Socialist propaganda in 1924, Hitler made ​​a fundamental article in the arsenal of Mein Kampf , denouncing a mix that already threaten Europe and invade France, destined to become "a European-African mulatto state”.
         The few survivors "Rheinlandbastards"will be removed from each , other sterilized , hatred and fear, cultivated and rooted in mentalities , also lead to the series of massacres which will suffer African soldiers in 1940", tells Marc Michel.
         At the end of the war, the percentage of African soldiers dead in struggle is over 22%, against 17.4% of mobilized for France, 15.4 % in Germany and 10.2% for great Britain and the Dominions. But the war effort was not limited to the battlefields of Europe. Many colonial workers, mostly North African -100,000 40,000 Algerians and Moroccans were sent in France, mainly in big cities like Paris, Marseille, Lyon and Saint-Etienne, but also sometimes in campaigns to replace male labor party to front.
         A situation that will not pose problems to the end of the war. These workers, mostly crammed into ghettos, often have the feeling of being rejected by the population, workers and trade unions. Another important dimension of the war effort imposed on Africa: the metropolis provide food and oilseeds to such an extent that the consequences will be as important as those of the military mobilization.

Heavy toll of Africa: the last colonial sharing!

         What must be added the heavy price paid by civilians and soldiers recruited from the belligerent troops during the fighting on the mainland populations, the First World War was "the last colonial division". "Once hostilities appetites awoke" and challenged his possessions to Germany in Togo, Cameroon, East Africa (Burundi, Rwanda, Tanzania) and in the south-west of the continent (now Namibia). All nations engaged enlisted the "native" either as soldiers or as carriers or auxiliaries. The fighting was extremely hard, long battles. And losses are often underestimated.
         According to Marc Michel , south of the Sahara, between 1.5 million and 2 million Africans died mobilized poor sanitary conditions (malaria, sleeping sickness, typhoid, infectious complications of injury, undernutrition, Spanish flu, ...). The conquest of Cameroon, which required tens of thousands of men, would have cost the lives of more than 4,200 Allied besides "losses (unevaluated) tens of thousands of porters recruited locally or brought from neighboring colonies". The theater of operations in East Africa, 9 % of the estimated 193,000 men, who served and 9 % of bearers million recruited by the British lost their lives.

War, less deadly than disease, hunger and looting.

         "The English-speaking historians, reminiscent who taught among other universities of Yaoundé and Brazzaville, believe that casualties among civilian and military recruits, soldiers, porters, requisitioned all kinds, have reached 650 000 men, women and children in German East-Africa. War there has also been less deadly than the disease, hunger, looting that decimated the populations and economies disorganized old ... " In the south-west of the continent, the troops who fought were Whites, although 33,000 Blacks accompanied the South African troops as auxiliaries alongside Indians and Mestizos.
         "The Great War in Africa, says Marc Michel, was not a mere epiphenomenon of global conflict. It has created a doubt in the West itself on its ability to take the "duty of civilization"and, for the first time, has given Africans the opportunity to express themselves", instilling a seed of rebellion. A North African nationalism took shape, and arose as a snapshot of the "good" rifleman Banania, “ brave and faithful soldier ," the latter assert equal rights: "Before I was negro exclaimed a rifleman in 1916, now I'm French ! "

But at what price!
*Article of Severine Kodjo-Grandvaux in " Jeune Afrique " on January 7, 2004 on basis of the essay of Marc Michel,
L’Afrique dans l’engrenage de la Grande Guerre (Africa in the gears of the Great War), Karthala, Paris, 2013.

jeudi 2 janvier 2014

Sudan: Taha Ustaz Mahmoud Mohamed and the Second message of Islam.

It was once Edmond Kaiserand his hate of Gafaar El-Nimeiry!

         The man who committed the child drugged, imprisoned, starved, beaten or invalid for the woman excised and submitted for the wounded man in his mind and in his flesh, it was Edmond Kaiser, who died on March 4, 2000. It was in Paris that he was born on January 2, 1914 to a Jewish family whose father died when he was only four years.
            He said he was agnostic and he allowed himself to attack the Pope before Christmas, but he devoted himself entirely to his neighbor and practiced the gospel better than many Christians, it also often cited text. And himself to tell that when he revealed to the Abbé Pierre, one of the most famous personalities of our time, he was an unbeliever, he told him: "Go, man, go in peace. May God help you! ". He does not stop criticizing the rulers and said non-politicized, but he spoke like a tribune and was constantly struggling to our awareness of the suffering of others. He wanted the poor is well fed, well clothed, well housed, but he lived as an ascetic. After his childhood in Switzerland, he returned to France to work with the French resistance in World War II and had been condemned to death by the Nazis.
         Pharmacist of Vaud medical delegate, he founded the Friends and companions of Emmaus in Lausanne in 1957-58, the humanitarian organization "Terre des hommes" in 1960 and the Sentinels movement in 1980.
         He hated so Gafaar el-Nimeiry, that  if he was Sudanese, he would have been hanged as “the most apostate in the world” by the latter and/or his successors!

The same childhood as Taha Mahmoud Mohamed Ustaz
Born in 1910 at Rufa’a on the shore of Blue Nile, in Sudan. When his mother, Fatima bit Mahmoud, died around 1915, his father, Muhammad Taha, took his children and moved to Al-Higailieg, a nearby village, where they all worked in farming. Muhammad Taha died around 1920, leaving his four children to be brought up by their aunt in Rufa'a who also had them go to school. Al-Ustaz Mahmoud was able to complete the extremely competitive educational system of the time. He obtained a degree from the Engineering school Gordon Memorial, (now University of Khartoum) in 1936. After working in Railway, he resigned and started his own business in 1941. In October 1945, he founded the "Jamhouriyyen Ikhwan (Brothers Republican) party". In 1946, he was imprisoned twice by the British colonial administration for his political activities. It was during his second stay in prison, he develops his conception of Islam later published under the title "The second message of Islam" (translated from Arabic into English by Abdullahi Ahmed An-Na' im).

Who was really “Apostate”, Gafaar el-Nimery or Taha Mahmoud Mohamed Ustaz?

         He opposes both the colonial occupation and traditional elites rejecting the Manichean positions. He advocates the principles of Islam adapted to the modern world, claimed equality between men and women, rejects male privilege, rejects the principle of dowry, says Sharia is the social context of seventh century that the "Sunnah" real spiritual experience of the Prophet Mohamed is an "ideal to live, never reached". For him, true faith is that which recognizes that "the human being was created in the image of God", he is free, responsible and perfectible in a society led by ishtirakiyya (Socialism). After the publication of a pamphlet against the policy of Marshal Gafaar el Nimeiry*, he was arrested in 1984 with fifty militants and sentenced to 18 months in prison. He was again arrested on 5 January 1985. Considered an "apostate", he was sentenced to death and hanged by the regime of Mohamed el Gafaar Nimeiry* on January 18, 1985. The latter challenged by a non-violent popular uprising in March then reversed April 6, 1985 by the military coup of General Abdularahman Swar el Dahab * .
His books published under the titles of:
-The Second Message of Islam, Syracuse University Press, U.S.A., 1996.
-Un Islam à vocation libératrice (A liberating vocation Islam), Introduced by François Houtart, Preface by Samir Amin*, L'Harmattan, Paris, 2002.
Cfr. Dictionnaire biographique des Africains, (French version).