vendredi 20 mars 2015

Senegal/Ecuador: The wonderful destiny of Alonso de Illescas- Enrique.

Born around 1528 in the Cape Verde region in Senegal today. At ten, he is captured by slavers and sold in Spain. Alonso Illescas Spanish merchant of Sevilla who bought, give him his name. He teaches him Spanish, lifestyle and especially the military profession in which he excels. At 25, he accompanied his master in Latin America. He lived in San Domingo in the Caribbean in the service of his master in his trade clothing, cold cuts, swords, horses, olive oil, wine and African slaves.

The Revolt of Africans!

         In October 1553, the merchant vessel they boarded that contained among other goods, 17 Africans and African 6, all slaves from Guinea, ran aground on the reef and sank in Puerto Viejo, between Panama and Lima. Slave women and men who were on the boat fled into the forest. They reach the village of Pidi under the leadership of Anton. Being the best trained, Alonso Illescas becomes logically their leader in 1560 after the death of Anton. He learned the local languages, forms alliances with the Indians of the Nigua community and rejects the Spanish authority. Women and African men marry with indigenous and give rise to the mulatto as the Spaniards called Zambos.

How to make peace with Spanishes authorities!

         Illescas wanted to make peace with the Spanish authorities in exchange for official recognition of freedom of himself and the members of the African community. According to the writings of the Spanish priest Miguel Cabello Balboa (1535-1608), in 1577, he received the proposal to be knighted and appointed governor of Esmeraldas by order of the King of Spain in exchange, he had to persuade other chiefdoms the region and the other bands rivals chestnuts, to let the Spaniards settle at the mouth of the Esmeraldas River. lIlescas realized that his attempt would have led to the internal war between the two communities of brown and indigenous societies of the lowlands. He said to the king that he appreciated the gesture, but he rejected the proposal, preferring the freedom and autonomy of its people on their land. He led the community with the help of his two sons Sebastian and Antonio before his death in the Esmeraldas region between 1587 and 1590.

His son Sebastian Illescas become national hero of Ecuador…in 1997!

         His son Sebastian finally signed the agreement with Spain and was knighted and officially recognized leader Over the Maroons. In 1599 the painter GallicAndres Sanchez , by order of Judge Juan Barrio painted his portrait as "black head of Esmeraldas," he sends to the King of Spain. Illescas received confirmation of his baptism in the name of Alonso hands of the Bishop of Quito in 1600. Illescas family operated the Esmeraldas region for at least two generations. On October 2, 1997, the National Congress of Ecuador passed a special law establishing the National Day of Black recognizing Alonso Illescas as a national hero of freedom in Ecuador.

jeudi 5 mars 2015

USA: The distant origin of the dollar and its mysterious symbol "$"

The mysterious hidden story behind the $ dollar sign!

The dollar is symbolized by the S barred while there is no S in the word "Dollar"! Why?
The $ Peso rather symbolizes the currency of the former Spanish colonies.

Bohemia in 1500.

Bohemia is in 1500, a kingdom in Europe for the current Czech Republic. The kingdom is enriched with the discovery and exploitation of its silver mines. Silver is also found in Saxony and the German Tyrol. These regions are beginning to mint their money on large silver coins gradually replacing small gold then current.
In the German Tyrol, it mints a 32 grams silver piece called "Guldengroschen". Its success was immediate. In 1519, the Kingdom of Bohemia has enough money to beat its currency "Thaler". Pure silver, has a weight more "acceptable" which makes it compatible with all European currencies. In Slovenian, it also says "Thaler",  it becomes "Daaler" in Dutch and in English it is translated as "Dollar". Its success is such that it is used for all business transactions!

The entire Spanish power!

1530, The World is dominated by the Spanish Kingdom, who discovered and colonized the Americas and the New World. Mine production is idling in Europe, while the Spanish operates silver mines in its American colonies. Now 85% of the world production of silver comes from Latin America and enriched Spain. Spain alone has more money than all of the world combined. She decides to fight its own currency and with its economic power and stability, the Spanish mints "The" Real Ocho (The real eight or peso) " which replaces thalers in world trade.

The Spanish peso to the US dollar with its acronym "$"!

When the United States of America wanted to create their own currency, they are inspired by the "Peso" but they kept the English name of "Dollar" because they were English speakers. The play 8 Pesos regularly abridged by 8 before P and S, abbreviated 8PS. In 1770, some have found even more connected to write P and S on each other, which has gradually given the acronym of the dollar that we all know, the famous striped S: $!
And that became the "$" symbol that represents the dollar!

What now of other worlds in the world?

Today, the Peso has retained its influence in the world: eight countries still use it (Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Mexico, Philippines and Uruguay). The riyal of Saudi Arabia and Qatar derives its name from Réal 8 Spanish. And the yuan and yen - the currencies of China and Japan - are currencies appointed from round pieces of 8 Spanish.