jeudi 21 juillet 2016

France / Denmark: When a royal erection failure causes the papal ban.

Love stories between France and Denmark.

Danish constitutional monarchy is headed by Queen Margrethe II (born in 1940), married with the Prince Consort of Denmark, the French Henri de Laborde de Monpezat (born in 1934). The royal family enjoys great popularity in the country, although Henrik’s dachshund, "Evita" bites from time to time in the leg of a castle guard of Redensborg, the summer residence of the royal family in the north of Copenhagen.
The good Prince Henrik, craft winemaker in France, sent a crate of wine to the victim to be forgiven. But before this incident, the case went to the Danish Parliament about whether or not we should proceed with euthanasia of "Evita." Apart from this type of trivial incident, the royal couple loves and gave Denmark including Crown Prince Frederik André Henrik Christian af Glücksborg or simply Frederik of Denmark (born in 1968).
But the royal marital stories between France and Denmark have not always been happy.

The erection problem between King Philip II Augustus (1165-1223) and Queen Ingeborg of Denmark (1174-1236)

         In 1193, as a fairy tale, when the court of King Philip Augustus of France (28), son of Louis VII and Adela of Champagne, king of the Franks since 1180 is about to receive the beautiful princess Ingeborg of Denmark (18 years ), daughter of King Valdez II, the great of Denmark (1131-1182) and Sophie Polock, sister of Valdemar II Sejr (1170-1241) to marry her. Her dowry was trading at 10,000 silver marks, which was a huge sum at the time. She has blue eyes, an abundant blond hair, an angelic face and graceful forms. On receiving the king Philippe II Auguste immediately falls under its spell. He is a widower of Isabel of Hainaut (1170-1190), a descendant of Charlemagne, Queen of France from 1180 to 1190, that  he had tried to divorce in 1184.

But he is afraid of not being at its height: he is ugly as a louse and the top of his 28 years, his face is marked by diseases contracted during his crusade in St. Jean d'Acre in Israel, between 1189 and July 1191. He drives his dark fears and gets royally as he should.
With a grin, she mumbles in Danish:
- Hej, hvordan går det? (Hello how are you?)
King Philip is puzzled that the future Queen of France does not speak a word of French, the king turns to the bishop of Noyon to confirm this. The Prelate tells him that she does not control a few words of Latin.
Whatever the language, the male desire order to take her immediately to the altar! The ceremony is grand in the new Our Lady of Amiens. As the Mass is said in Latin, the royal couple are on the same wavelength without even communicate.

A catastrophic wedding night !

Lying on the bed, his heart pounding, the teenager waits worried that her royal husband to come join her in the bed. But he has doubts. He is curiously nervous. He walks along the sidelines in the bridal room staring at the ground, throwing from time to time on the generous forms of Ingeborg who understands that something is wrong!
-Majestæt, Hvordan har du det? (Majesty, how are you?)


The girl saw distressing hours of  her existence! Her husband why her husband  hesitates to take action? What he dislikes in it?
Phillipe Auguste finally comes to lie beside her, but turns her back.
Not seeing the reaction, she awkwardly tries to stroke her thigh, then abandons her approach after a while. Is that making love in France asks herself silently the maid? Completely lost in her worries, she sank into a troubled sleep.
 The next morning, on August 14, 1174, the foul mood has not changed. They return to the cathedral for the coronation ceremony of Queen. All chroniclers of the time tell that King Philip Augustus is decidedly out of sorts. The fleeing look, something obviously bothering him at the highest point. During the solemn, he completely derails same. His whole body starts to shake, big drops of sweat on his face. Worse, he appears terrorized by the simple fact of having to touch Ingeborg! But what has happened the past night, wondered the good people!
Dutifully, the archbishop still manages to finish the coronation ceremony despite the strange behavior of the king.
At the end of the ceremony, Philippe  is a febrile and Ingeborg in tears cleanly way back into their castle without exchange nor a single word or less look. Just arrived at the castle, the king summoned his Council on the field. Before the stunned board, he made a sensational statement: he wants to return the Danish princess to her family !!
'But finally, majesty, when will you tell us finally what happens?
- "She tied my  aiguilette!" exclaimed the king to tears!
Amazement falls on the august meeting.
-His Majesty, Are you sure?

         - "But since I tell you! Last night she was lying ... I approached her and ... nothing! Absolutely nothing! She tied the lanyard, I tell you! "

Having aigullette knotted at the end of the twenty-first century, is a very widespread term synonymous with impotence. But in fact the king Philippe Auguste knows a simple sexual failure, and that the poor Ingeborg charged with thinly veiled words witchcraft !
-But, Majesty, in this case, why not see canceled the induction ceremony of the Queen coronation ?
I ... I thought .... that the sacraments of the archbishop would lift the curse that launched me... admit he? sheepishly.

Meanwhile, all members of the Royal Council are unanimous, it must refer to the Danish princess home. The annulment will not pose a problem: the non-use during the wedding night is more than enough reason tun ...
But that's not counting the violent reaction of Ingeborg: No way to let oust the throne without a fight!
She has just been crowned queen of France and intends to remain so!

Will she be burned at the stake for having bewitched her husband royal? The suspense is at its peak!
Pending to agree on her fate, the poor Ingeborg is forcibly driving at the abbey of Saint Maur-des-Fosses (Val-de-Marne). Amid the nuns, at least she will not tie the lanyard to anyone!
Before taking any final decision, Philippe was persuaded by his advisers to give a new chance to Ingeborg.
- "Sire, go another night with her. If your lanyard is still tied, we'll see. "

-" Out of the question ! this Danish witch will never set foot in my mouth, you hear me? "

-But You realize that his brother, King Valdemar II Sejr will never accept such a decision? We are on the verge of a war with Denmark!

A second attempt to break the lanyard!

After hours of discussion on sexuality of Philippe, counselors and read finally manage to find a compromise: he agrees to pass a second and final night with his wife, but it is he who will visit the convent, where she was rookie.

When seen entering his cell, Ingeborg is both terrified and hopeful.

-Hvordan Har det ? She asks?

-Hvordanhardu Yourself, witch! he answers annoyed him.

Willingly or unwillingly, the French undresses and lies down on the bench of the monastery ... But a filthy and cold monastic cell is not necessarily the place to find the strength of his twenty years ... Worse Christ enthroned on the cross above the bed staring at the young monarch seems insistently. Under these conditions, how can we expect the royal Appendix manages to ascend to the heavens?

The next morning, he was with a foul mood that the bad news to his counselors my lanyard is not undone. More choice, a radical solution is needed!

Nothing to do, this woman is a witch !!
      In his love stories in the history of France, Guy Breton wrote that when Philip left the convent, he indulged in a violent fit of anger in mounting his horse, shouting, "Nothing to do! Nothing to do ! This woman is really bewitched ... ". 
The next day the new failure of the king was known throughout Paris, everyone from his comments.
  For the king can point saying one requires that the queen has any hidden defects. Perhaps a lizard skin ...
-Good Well ... There's just say that you have not eaten, and the Pope will be forced to cancel your wedding!

-You Do not think about my friend! And all the kingdom will know that the king of France is powerless? Find another idea on the spot!
A force to delve into the family tree of Ingeborg, they finally found a powerful argument: it turns out that the first wife of Philip, Isabelle de Hainaut, a relationship ... but certainly distant link relatives anyway! with Ingeborg.

In all honesty, the opposite would have been surprising at this time when all European royal families intermarried and where marriage between cousins ​​were common.. But whatever! Philip now holds an argument to break his marriage without fearing disgrace.

The intervention of the Pope and the price of the excommunication of the king!

Without wasting a second, Ingeborg is again locked in a convent. She is left with only two things in the world: her eyes to weep and a pen to inform the Pope Celestine III (1100-1198) of his situation.
Of course the Holy Father refuses to ratify the annulment of marriage. But he really wants to get in a tussle with an uncertain outcome with the powerful Philippe Auguste? He is now more than 80 years and has not really energy to lead such a fight ...
Meanwhile, Philippe Auguste finds happiness with the pleasures that provide a lanyard in full possession of his faculties! He sets its sights on a certain Agnes, daughter of Berthold IV, Duke of Meran, so much so that the wife in June 1196.
         Ironically, the ceremony takes place at Compiegne on the spot where Ingeborg was unjustly violated.
Philippe and Agnes spin the perfect love to the death of Pope Celestine III in January 1198. His successor, Pope Innocent III (1161-1216), did not hear it that way. He is not tired by the weight of years and intends to gain respect from the French royal power!
He forces Philip Augustus to divorce with Agnes and resume his lawful wife, Ingeborg. What Philippe obviously refused. Innocent thus takes a radical step: he throws the ban on the Kingdom of France and excommunicated the king!
In 1200, the extent of papal ban on the kingdom of France is so severe that the churches are closed, masses and bells  prohibited, administering sacraments prohibited. This means that the souls of the inhabitants of the country are promised to eternal damnation! That is to say how the King Philip stubbornness is frowned upon by the people. For a simple love story of their monarch, sailing condemned to burn in hell!

The tension of the French population is at its peak!

Under papal and popular pressure, is death the soul that Philip Augustus is forced to leave the convent Ingeborg and resume her officially as wife.
Pope Innocent III is satisfied with his act because it just proved the supremacy of the Catholic Church to all Christian Europe.
In September 1200, to appeal to the Supreme Pontiff, the king of the Franks organized an official ceremony of false reconciliation with the Danish queen that forced Pope Innocent III to lift the ban. Philip had not yet returned his second wife Agnes, so it was a bigamist. That did not allow the Catholic Church. The latter dies in childbirth in July 1201, her children were recognized as legitimate by Innocent III.
Alas, the fairy Tinker does not last long for Ingeborg, because the papal ban lifted on France, she is returned to prison in the fortress of Etampes where she will still twelve years ... locked up and deprived of everything. Is the Danish princess pursued by the Indian sign! Or the son of Saint Louis was possessed by the devil to attack the Danish poor maid.
Philippe went Ingeborg responsible for the death of Agnes, and gave orders that the prisoner, now locked in Etampes in the tower Guinette, was treated with the utmost severity.

His holiness, I can do no more!

         One day in 1203, however, the suffering is too bright, she wrote to the pope this moving letter:
"I am persecuted by my lord and husband Philippe, who not only do not treat me as his wife, but made me drink insults and slander. In this prison, there is no consolation for me, but continual and intolerable suffering. Nobody has the right to come to me, nor dare. No religious is admitted to comfort my soul by making me the divine word. He prevents people from my home country to bring me letters and talk with me. The food that is given to me is barely adequate; most needed my health is even deprive me of medical care. I can not swim. If I need a bloodletting, I have no one to use it. And because of this, I fear that my vision suffers and that other more serious infirmities encores happen. I have not enough clothes and I put those are not worthy of a queen. Finally, what makes my misery more intolerable, it is the shrewish women that the king has given me as a society. They speak to me in a jeering and offensive manner. I only hear profanity or insults.
"The letters that Your Holiness sent me, I could not receive them. Discouraged and uncertain of what I will do in the state I am disgusted to live, I turn my eyes to you, Holy Father. I think of my soul, not my body. I die every day to fully retain the right to marriage. If my lord Philip, famous French king, deceived by the wiles of the devil, even once wanted to argue his case against me, I like to be conducted in a place, where I can explain myself freely, release, get Your Mercy apostolic be relieved statements that could have torn myself by force. "

Rescued by political events!

         But political events upset the plans of the King of France and carried him to approach Ingeborg. Returning to the English King John Lackland of Normandy, Anjou and Poitou in 1204-1205, he raised concern among his neighbors, the counts of Flanders, Boulogne and Emperor Otto IV of Brunswick, allied with Jean to end the ambitions of the sovereign. Including threats, Philippe Auguste fortify Paris and major cities of the royal domain: Reims, Chalons-sur-Marne or Peronne. Considering the need for a fleet stand against England, he thought in Denmark, whose ships were the best of Europ.
This thinking was certainly not foreign to his decision to resume in 1208 Ingeborg at his side, although, according to the chronicle, he said, "to end the admonitions of the apostle of Rome".
         Ingeborg release was indeed necessary to hope to negotiate an alliance with the Danish court. The new situation of the queen was reinforced a few years later, in 1212, when tired of the attitude of John Lackland, Pope Innocent III deposed from his throne and called the Christian princes to a crusade against him. If John was submitted to the pope the following year, he prepared to take squeezed the kingdom of France, by launching an attack from the Guyenne only part of Aquitaine belonging to him yet, while his allies would launch an attack north. The support of the Kingdom of Denmark now appeared to be paramount.
Ingeborg was a recognized queen, when the King of France reached by the victory of Bovines (July 27, 1214) the fullness of his glory. She survived Philippe Auguste, she closed her eyes when he died (1223), and reserved him in his will land and property.
            She retired near Corbeil, an island in the Essonne, to the priory of Saint-Jean-en-l'Ile, thet she had founded. Become a queen dowager very discreet, she crossed the reign of Louis VIII and Blanche of Castile. She died on July 27, 1236, ten years after the arrival to the throne of St. Louis.
She  had no children with Philip II Augustus.

To know more :
-Géraud Hercules, Ingeburge de Danemark, reine de France, 1193-1238 (Ingeborg of Denmark, Queen of France, 1193-1238), Bibliothèque de l’école des charles, 1844.
-Morel Gérard, Ingeburge, la reine interdite (Ingeborg, Queen prohibited, Paris, 1987.
-Pernoud Régine, Ingeburge du Danemark (Ingeborg of Denmark), Paris, 1989.
-Baldwin John, Philippe Auguste et son gouvernement : Les fondations du pouvoir royal en France au Moyen Age (Philip Augustus and his government: The foundations of royal power in France in the Middle Age), Fayard, Paris, 1991.
-Flori Jean, Philippe Auguste : La naissance de l’Etat monarchique 1165-1223, (Philip Augustus: The birth of the monarchical state 1165-1223), Tallandier, Paris, 2002.
-Sivery Gérard, Philippe Auguste, Perrin, Paris, 2003.